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Introduction to battery electric trucks. Heavy-duty diesel-engine trucks agricultural, mining, logging, construction, garbage, cement, wheelers are the main engines of civilization. Without them, no goods would be delivered, no food planted or harvested, no garbage picked up, no minerals mined, no concrete made, oil and gas drilled, and roads built to keep them all rolling.
If trucks stopped running, gas stations, grocery stores, factories, pharmacies, and manufacturers would shut down within a week. Trucks that matter — that haul 30 tons of goods, pour cement, haul mining ore — can weigh 40 times more than an average car. So scaling batteries up for heavy-duty trucks NRC is impossible now given the state of battery technology. For example, a truck capable of going miles hauling 59, pounds, the maximum allowable cargo weight, would need a battery weighing 55, pounds, and so could only carry about 4, pounds of cargo den Boer et al.
And because a heavy-duty truck battery is so heavy and large, charging takes too long — typically 12 hours or more. Or as Ryan Carlyle, oil company engineer puts it: The necessary energy density numbers are more like 50 times less than they need to be. The truck will use over half its payload capacity just carrying its own batteries , which is all but unworkable as a freight haulage system.
There are chemical limits to what batteries can do. There are not any commercially available heavy-duty Battery Electric Vehicles BEVs outside the transit bus segment at this time. It is not expected that BEVs can penetrate into the long-haul trucking vocation in the next several decades, where significant high speed steady-state operations dominate the vehicles duty cycle, without significant advances in battery energy density and BEV recharging technologies.
Electric trucks do exist, mostly medium-duty hybrid that stop and start a lot to recharge the battery. This limits their application to delivery and garbage trucks and buses. These trucks are heavily subsidized at state and federal levels since on average they cost three times as much as a diesel truck equivalent Table 1. Whenever I do an internet search on electric trucks, something new will pop up. But if you go to the John Deere website there is absolutely nothing about this tractor.
John Deere is not working on electric tractors because they require mechanical power that is mobile or portable. Only internal combustion engines can provide efficient mobile and portable heavy-duty power DTF The Port of Los Angeles thought about using heavy-duty all-electric drayage trucks to improve air quality.
Drayage trucks drive at least miles a day back and forth between the port and inland warehouses. Electric trucks are also not commercial yet because they have too many performance issues, such as poor performance in cold weather, swift acceleration, driving up steep hills, too short a range and battery life, they take too long to recharge, declining miles per day as the battery degrades, all of which make planning routes difficult and inefficient.
It is also much harder to develop batteries for trucks than cars because trucks are expected to last 15 years versus 10 for cars or go for 1 million miles. Trucks also have to endure more extreme conditions of temperature, vibrations, and corrosive agents than autos NRC , and it is hard to make battery packs durable enough for this rougher ride, longer miles, and longevity.
Calstart interviewed many businesses about their reluctance to buy hybrid or all electric trucks, and found their greatest concerns were the purchase cost, lack of confidence in the technology, lack of industry and truck manufacturer support, lack of infrastructure, and the heavy weight Calstart Elon Musk recently tweeted that Tesla will build a semi-truck with absolutely no details, promising to tweet again half a year from now with more information. Why should I believe an Elon Musk tweet any more than a Trump tweet?
None of the electric trucks I studied or that are on the market now were long-haul or off-road tractors, harvesters, construction, logging, or other class 8 heavy-duty trucks except garbage trucks. They were all much smaller class delivery trucks or buses, because they stop and start enough to use hybrid batteries, a far more commercially likely possibility than long-haul trucks, that can go for hundreds of miles before stopping, and be up to 80, pounds and even more weight off-road.
But if the devil is in the details, then read more below in my summary and excerpts of a paper about electric trucks. Catenary trucks, which use overhead wires, will be covered in another post. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment necessary for charging the battery can be several thousand dollars. Level 3 fast charging is not used much yet because more research needs to be done on whether this shortens battery life. PEV and HEV vehicles typically have significant autonomy and payload limitations and involve much larger initial investments in comparison to internal combustion engine vehicles ICEV.
The battery pack is the most expensive component in PEVs and significantly augments their purchase cost compared to similar ICEV trucks. Competing with compressed natural gas CNG and existing diesel ICEV trucks will be hard — significant improvements in ICEV efficiencies are likely in the future from the 21st Century truck partnership and other efforts to improve diesel engines. BEVs will also have to compete with other fuel alternatives such as CNG, in which case their business case can be even harder to make.
Battery size and weight reduce maximum payloads for electric vans and trucks compared to equivalent diesel trucks. Even HEVs suffer from the extra weight of two power-trains reducing payload capacity. Technical disadvantages include a relatively low achievable range.
Typical ranges for freight BEVs vary from to kilometers miles on a single charge. The miles a truck can travel declines over time. In Germany and the Netherlands, the limited operating range of electric trucks caused less flexibility in planning trips and restricted ad-hoc tour planning, resulting in less efficient operations. Also, the range declined over time through battery aging, when carrying heavy loads, and in winter from heating, lights and ventilation.
Furthermore, the range listed by EV manufacturers is based on measurements according to the New European Drive Cycle which, compared to real life energy consumption in urban last mile delivery, do not give a reliable indication of the expected range.
The reliability of the EVs was dependent on the model; certain prototypes and conversions were judged as reliable, while others were reported as insufficient Taefi At the moment, lithium ion batteries last for four years; however, practical experience has shown that the average period of use is only two years.
Range is also shortened by: The efficiency and driving range varies substantially based on driving conditions and driving habits. Extreme outside temperatures tend to reduce range because more energy must be used to heat or cool the cabin. Cold batteries do not provide as much power as warm batteries do. The use of electrical equipment, such as windshield wipers and seat heaters, can reduce range. High driving speeds reduce range because more energy is required to overcome increased air resistance.
Rapid acceleration reduces range compared with smooth acceleration. Hauling heavy loads or driving up significant inclines also reduces range U. Department of Energy b. Long time to charge battery: It takes a long time to charge the batteries because of their low energy density. The most common way of charging was to slow charge the vehicles over night at company premises. The in-house charging infrastructure had to be fixed several times when it was overloaded by the high capacity need of the e-trucks in Germany.
Other charging related issues found were that the implementation of a smart grid and load management for large electrical fleets is not yet clarified; solutions to ensure charging in case of power outage are necessary; and charging plugs were too damageable, so only specially trained staff could handle the plug, which caused problems with replacement drivers and training issues.
The limited number of charging spots outside the cities and lack of battery swapping for larger vehicles was also an issue Taefi Batteries have low energy density — too low.
Batteries are a critical factor in the widespread adoption of electric vehicles but have a much lower energy density than gasoline, partly caused by the large amount of metals used in their production.
Battery life too short: Lithium-ion batteries in current freight BEVs typically provide 1, to 2, deep cycle life, which should last around six years.
Some manufacturers are working on a 4, to 5, deep cycle life within 5 years, but there are often tradeoffs to be made between different lithium based battery chemistries. For example, lithium-titanate batteries already reach 5, full discharge cycles, but have lower energy densities than other lithium-ion technologies. Calendar life, on the other hand, is a measure of natural degradation with time and was in the years range as of with a projected range of years by Typical battery warranty lengths for electric trucks have been reported as being in the three to five year range.
Battery health can be influenced by the way they are charged and discharged. For example, frequent overcharging i. As expressed through deep cycle life, battery deterioration can also occur if it is frequently discharged to very deep levels. Using high power levels to quickly charge batteries could also have negative impacts on battery life, especially if used in the beginning and end of the charging cycle.
The uncertainty regarding the effect of extreme operational temperatures on lithium batteries is another issue that should be further considered. All these potential deteriorating factors can speed up the reduction of maximum available battery capacity and shorten vehicle range and battery life.
At the moment, lithium ion batteries last for four years; however, practical experience has shown that the average period of use is only two years AustriaTech Power Requirements to recharge batteries are high. A battery electric truck with a kWh battery would require a charging power level of 15 kW to be able to charge in 8 hours, and the same vehicle with a battery pack of kWh would require a power level of kW to be able to be charged in minutes.
The impact of the high power demand from the electricity grid. This could limit the amount of vehicles in a depot which could simultaneously be charged with high power levels, potentially requiring further investments for transformer upgrades. The stations would also need to recharge a very large amount of batteries at the same time, which could impact the electric grid.
Better Place was considered a fron-trunner in the battery swapping industry but it recently filed for bankruptcy Fiske Plug-in electric trucks and vans class 2 to 8 vehicles have generally only penetrated niche applications, while remaining dependent on government incentives.
They attribute this to key industry players going out of business, the conservative nature of fleet operators when it comes to new technologies, renewed interest in natural gas, and the important cost premium of these vehicles. The vast majority of expected sales are not fully electric plug-ins, but are Hybrid Electric Vehicles HEVs which do not require plug-in recharging but which are only suitable for applications that require a great deal of stopping and starting, i.
The worst possible use of an e-truck is daily mileage less than 40 km, never needs to return to the base, has little chance of charging while on operations, needs to be charged in 20 minutes or less, carry a full load equal to a diesel truck, carries the full load all day, goes the same speed much of the day, travels on freeways, hilly terrain, and charges at peak load. Because of these different cost structures between ICEVs and BEVs, the only way to appropriately compare the cost competitiveness of battery electric vans and trucks for goods distribution is to study their whole life costs McMorrin et al.
The following are brief descriptions of the cost structure and TCO of battery electric freight vehicles compared to their conventional counterparts. One way to decrease the cost premium of these larger BEVs is to be able to right-size the costly battery according to the application Electrification Coalition Furthermore, battery leasing currently only seems available for a few battery electric vans but not for trucks, for whom it could significantly help the business case based on whole life costs Valenta Purchase costs for battery electric vans vary largely depending on GVWs and the availability of battery leasing.
Examples of these include Renault for its Kangoo Z. This could also imply that the prices listed here could vary depending on specific purchasing contexts. Ranges for these class 3 to 6 trucks are from to km miles depending on battery size, vehicle weight.
Den Boer et al. Also, approximately 4, hybrid electric trucks were sold in North America as of/p>
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