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One of the leading causes of death for women of reproductive age is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS. Factors that predict unprotected sex have been studied for decades, in many populations, using a variety of analytic approaches and focusing on a broad range of different types of variables. Some studies suggest that alcohol misuse or drug use increases the likelihood of high-risk sexual behavior by reducing behavioral inhibitions and risk perceptions.
A growing area of study is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the use or non-use of condoms in heterosexual sex. Recent research has shown an association between unprotected sex and social network factors.
For example, the perception of risky sexual behavior as normative and a lack of communication about HIV and condom use among social network members have been shown to result in ignorance about protective behaviors and subsequent engagement in risky sex.
Although a growing number of studies have focused on the relationship aspect of unprotected sex, most of the research on risky sexual behavior has investigated risky sex as a characteristic of individuals. Also, individuals have a variety of numbers and types of relationships.
Therefore, summarizing data across relationships or focusing on one partner at a time suggests a loss of information that may be essential in understanding variation in unprotected sex. Despite this loss of information, investigations of unprotected sex are dominated by analysis designs that focus on individuals. This emphasis on the individual level of analysis is common throughout social science despite the fact that many research questions are actually about relationships between individuals rather than independent individuals.
Kenny and colleagues suggest that one possible explanation for this limited analytic approach to relationship centered research is that traditional research methods used in the social sciences, such as ANOVA or multiple regression, make an independence assumption. Kenny and colleagues also recommend methodological alternatives to either ignoring non-independence or losing analytic power by summarizing information at the individual level. MLM allows for investigation of variables at different levels of analysis.
This approach has had limited use in the condom use literature. For example, Sherman and Latkin investigated condom use among drug users and their sex partners. Another study of women attending urban clinics used an MLM approach to demonstrate the relationship between partner type regular and intimate partnerships and unprotected sex. In this study, we address the need for greater understanding of the factors that predict unprotected sex between impoverished homeless women living in Los Angeles County, California, and the sex partners that they identified through a social network interview that generates personal network data for a sample of focal individuals.
Participants in this study were women who were randomly sampled and interviewed in temporary shelter settings in the central region of Los Angeles County for a study of the social context of substance use and sexual risk. A small number of the women who were screened were found to be ineligible due to language 18 out of women sampled.
Of the women who screened eligible for the study, women were interviewed. Of these women, 5 women were later found to be ineligible because they reported having had only oral sex with a partner in the past 6 months, and one woman had completed only half of the interview.
Of these interviewed, 16 women did not report having a recent casual or primary sex partner. Because many of the survey items and hypotheses were only relevant to recent casual or primary partners, these cases were excluded from this study resulting in a sample size of Individual computer-assisted face-to-face structured interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers. On average, interviews lasted one hour and 15 minutes.
The research protocol was approved by the institutional review board of RAND and a Certificate of Confidentiality was obtained from the U. Department of Health and Human Services. Women were sampled from facilities with a simple majority of homeless residents persons who would otherwise live in the streets or who sleep in shelters and have no place of their own to stay.
Because of the difficulty in measuring homelessness — in particular measuring it with a point-prevalence indicator — women sampled from these facilities were not initially screened for homelessness on an individual basis. For the purposes of this study, we consider these women homeless. Seventy-Three percent of the women sampled indicated that they currently did not have a regular place to stay e.
Potentially eligible settings were those that provided temporary shelter: We excluded facilities that limit services to persons less than years-old, facilities that only serve men, domestic violence shelters, SRO and board-and-care hotels, facilities whose population was not majority homeless and whose average resident length of stay was more than one year.
Women were drawn from 52 eligible facilities in Los Angeles County and selected by means of a stratified random sample, with shelters serving as sampling strata. A strict proportionate-to-size PPS stratified random sample i.
Thus, small departures were made from PPS and corrected with sampling weights. The analysis for this study was conducted on a sample of recent sexual relationships which was generated through a personal network interview with the sampled women. We followed established procedures for conducting personal network interviews.
First, in the Alter Name Generation Section, we asked respondents to name, by first name or nickname only, 20 individuals that they knew, who knew them, and with whom they had contact sometime during the past year or so. Contact could be face-to-face, by phone, mail or e-mail. We asked respondents to name only adults age 18 or older.
These names were then used in the second section, Alter Composition, which required women to answer a series of questions about each alter, including their background characteristics, behaviors, and relationship with the respondent. Third, in the Network Structure section, for each unique pair of network alters, we asked how often these two people interacted with each other.
The Network Structure section was asked only for the 12 sampled alters. The 20 named alters were stratified into sex partners and non-sex partners, and sex partners were sampled with a higher probability or with certainty if the respondent reported 4 or fewer sex partners. We stratified by sex partners to accommodate goals of the project, which included obtaining an understanding of sexual risk behaviors.
These personal network interview procedures provided data for a multi-level analysis of sexual risk behaviors. In order to measure the inherent relationship characteristic of unprotected sex, while also recognizing the individual level contributions to consistent condom use, we analyzed data at two levels of analysis. Also at the lowest level is the dependent variable, unprotected sex with a particular partner.
Unprotected sex with the individual partner , the dependent variable in the multi-level logistic analyses, was derived from an item asking how frequently women used male condoms when they had sex with the partner during the past 6 months never, less than half the time, about half the time, more than half the time, always.
Responses were dichotomized as: Perceived partner risk was assessed by three separate items asking whether the partner had ever injected drugs, been told he was HIV positive, or had sex with a man. If a woman said yes to one of these items, the variable was given a value of 1.
If she said either no or did not know, the variable was given a value of 0. Partner characteristics were assessed in terms of partner type, relationship length in months , support and conflict, and emotional closeness.
Partners who were classified as need-based were not included in this study because many of the relationship variables were missing. Support provision during the past 6 months was assessed by an item, adapted from a measure developed by Sherbourne and Stewart, 54 which has been used in previous studies of homeless persons 55 , Relationship conflict was measured by a single item asking how often the respondent had gotten into arguments with, or gotten angry or upset with, the partner during the past 6 months.
Frequency of intercourse with the partner during a typical month in the past 6 months was rated on a 7-point scale: This value was converted to the number of days per month on which they had sex using 0, 1. Relationship abuse was assessed in terms of whether physical or psychological abuse had ever been perpetrated by the partner. Based on items from the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, 60 women were asked a single question about whether the partner had ever: After exploratory analyses revealed that most relationships with physical abuse also had psychological abuse, and there was no variance in the outcome variable in the small number of relationships with physical abuse but not psychological abuse, two dichotomous relationship abuse variables were constructed to act as dummy variables in the multivariate analyses: In multivariate models, these dummy variables were compared to the reference group of relationships with neither physical nor psychological abuse.
A 3 on this scale indicates that the woman always considered it unlikely that she would have sex with this partner when she did not want to have sex with him while a 9 indicated that she always considered it very likely. Substance use before or during sex together in the past 6 months was assessed with four items: Demographic variables included age continuous , high school graduate or GED vs.
Condom attitudes were assessed using an 8-item scale adapted by Bogart and colleagues 63 from the condom attitude scale originally developed by Brown. Perceived susceptibility to HIV was assessed with a single item: Density is an index that represents the proportion of ties that exist in a network relative to the total number of possible ties, and varies from 0 to 1.
The goal of the data analysis was to produce a logistic multi-level model predicting a dichotomous measure of unprotected sex with the one-to-many personal network design described in Snijders, et al. We ran correlation tests among variables at the same level to explore associations and eliminated some potential predictor variables because they were highly correlated with other predictor variables. We then explored the strength of association between variables at the same level of analysis and unprotected sex.
Once we developed a more parsimonious list of variables, we constructed additional gllamm models that retained demographic variables as controls. We explored significant associations between blocks of similar variables and unprotected sex. The five blocks of variables included variables measuring characteristics of the partner, characteristics of the relationship between the respondent and the partner, variables measuring drug and alcohol co-occurrence during sex between the respondent and the partner, respondent level attitudes about condoms and HIV, and respondent level social network variables.
Table I describes the characteristics of the women interviewed in this study, as well as the number of cases with data for the variables listed.
Any variation in sample size is due to missing values for the particular variables. The women were on average In general, women tended to have positive attitudes towards condoms averaging 3. The women who were interviewed and had at least one recent, non-need based partner discussed a total of recent casual or primary sex partners.
Table II describes the characteristics of their primary and casual partners and their relationships with them. The majority of partners provided women with tangible support at least some of the time.
Women had frequent arguments with On average, women had sex with these partners 6. Table III shows the results of the preliminary multilevel models with blocks of similar variables. Variable blocks measuring substance use prior to sex and partner characteristics did not produce any variables that were significantly associated with unprotected sex.
Variable blocks measuring relationship characteristics, HIV and condom attitudes, and social network characteristics each had at least two different variables that were significantly associated with unprotected sex.
Additional models were run to test for associations between type of recruitment site and the dependent variable and there were no significant changes to the findings. Table III also shows the results of the final multivariate model containing each of the blocks with significant variables from the initial analyses.
There are several variables that predict unprotected sex with a particular partner. At the relationship level, unprotected sex was significantly more likely with partners who had been physically abusive and with whom the respondent reported a higher level of relationship commitment.
At the individual level, both holding less positive beliefs about condoms and feeling more susceptible to becoming infected with HIV were associated with higher likelihood of unprotected sex with a particular partner.
Frequency of conflict with the partner and network density were no longer significantly associated with unprotected sex in this final model. Our findings show that there are likely multiple influences on unprotected sex and that these influences occur at the level of the relationship, the individual, and the social network.
These findings have implications for those who design public health programs that aim to reduce unprotected sex among homeless women. It is important to understand the various levels of influence in combination in order to make decisions on where and how to direct resources towards reducing unprotected sex for this population.
Evaluating the multi-level findings of this study in conjunction helps us to view this complicated issue of unprotected sex from various perspectives to develop a three dimensional picture of why homeless women may be at risk for being infected by HIV./p>
Evaluating the multi-level findings of this study in conjunction helps us to view this complicated issue of unprotected sex from various perspectives to develop a three dimensional picture of why homeless women may be at risk for being infected by HIV. For example, on the individual level, we hypothesized that cognitive precursors of condom use were believing that HIV was a threat and believing that condoms were useful in counteracting this threat.
Confirming earlier research, we found support for the hypothesis that a belief in the effectiveness of condoms is negatively associated with unprotected sex. These findings are similar to another study of risky sexual behavior of homeless women in which greater perceived susceptibility was significantly associated with more risky behavior multiple sex partners.
In contrast to previous studies, 67 none of the partner risk variables predicted risky sex. The implication of these findings is that women who are engaging in unprotected sex with risky partners appear to realize that they are at risk from their partners while women who are using condoms believe that they are protecting themselves against HIV.
This finding is important because it suggests that making homeless women more aware of risky behaviors or risky characteristics of partners may be necessary but not sufficient components of interventions aimed at reducing unprotected sex. It is important to better understand why homeless women have unprotected sexual relationships when they realize the risks associated with this behavior. A key to understanding unprotected sex appears to be a better understanding of the association between condom use and relationship commitment.
Our data supported our hypothesis that greater relationship commitment would be associated with unprotected sex, confirming a number of previous studies. In a pilot phase of this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews about sexual events with a sample of 28 homeless women in Los Angeles Reference removed for double-blind review.
Women interviewed in this preliminary study described recent sexual events in which they engaged in unprotected sex. On the other hand, women also said that using condoms was sometimes a sign that they either did not trust the men or that they themselves were not trustworthy.
This description of denial of risk fostering risky sexual behavior is confirmed by other research that has demonstrated an association between risky sex and avoidant coping among homeless women 38 as well as men who have sex with men.
Our analysis did not support our hypothesis that women who received substantial tangible support from their partners would be more likely to engage in unprotected sex, which confirmed the findings of previous research. Our analysis did confirm our hypothesis that physical violence in a relationship is associated with unprotected sex and supports earlier research on the association between violence and condom use. Violence may be an important factor in unprotected sex for homeless women but the association goes beyond an association between condom use and coercive sex due to violence or economic vulnerability.
Although the association between risky behavior and avoidant coping is not unique to homeless women, there are aspects of their lives that may make this association particularly strong. In addition to living with extreme poverty, homeless women also have more problems with drugs and alcohol than other women, including women with low incomes but who are not homeless. Avoidant coping is likely to be common for homeless women because it is a means of dealing with stressful situations such as violence, extreme poverty, homelessness, and substance addiction 38 as well as a common symptom of PTSD.
A large number of homeless women also report experience with emotional, physical, or sexual abuse as children. Childhood experiences with abuse often have long lasting effects on their adult romantic relationships through the development of anxious attachment styles. In one study of attachment styles and unprotected sex, Feeney et al.
Attachment researchers have found that individuals with this style of attachment have intense desires for extreme closeness with their partners, have negative views of themselves, are insecure about being unloved and fear being abandoned by relationship partners. The relationship between attachment style and unprotected sex suggests that including a focus on fostering improved romantic relationships in HIV prevention interventions may be a key to fostering greater rates of protected sex among homeless women Relationship based HIV interventions are relatively new but some have demonstrated successful behavior change with women in heterosexual relationships up to 12 months after initial intervention However, relationship focused interventions also have risks because, as our analysis shows, abuse within a relationship is also a predictor of unprotected sex.
This fact complicates intervention designs that focus on having both members of a partner involved in the intervention together. Some women may not be able to include their partner in an intervention out of fear that their partner may react violently. However, the intervention described by El-Bassel and colleagues, 83 which addressed relationship factors that acted as barriers to condom use, was successful if the women received the intervention alone or with a partner.
This suggests that there is potential for successful relationship-based interventions for homeless women who engage in unprotected sex with risky partners. Interventions that have been developed for homed women and that have been successful with that population may need to be adapted to meet the needs of homeless women, including sensitivity to the day-to-day risks and hassles unique to a homeless existence. For example, homeless women and other women living in extreme poverty may be faced with the need to survive from income earned through sexual relationships.
In addition, homeless women are likely to be limited to romantic partners who are also dealing with the challenges of extreme poverty and incarceration. Dealing with shared financial problems and challenges related to incarceration should be an important component of a relationship-based intervention with homeless women. This is likely to be especially important for women of color because drug policies mandating harsh sentences for drug related offenses have disproportionately affected African American women and men.
Incarceration also changes in relationship with family, social network, and sexual relationships by increasing network ties to risky individuals while weakening family and romantic relationships.
These structural factors are likely to be pervasive in the lives of homeless women and interventions that aim to help them reduce exposure to HIV risk in their sexual relationships would need to address these factors directly. Our study also indicates the need for a better understanding of the social network context of unprotected sex. We confirmed our hypothesis that greater discussion of HIV among a woman and the alters in her personal network would be negatively associated with unprotected sex.
This confirms earlier research demonstrating the association between lack of communication about safe sex and HIV and unprotected sex. It is possible that the direction of causation between discussion of HIV among a woman and her alters and unprotected sex is reversed; that is, perhaps those women who engage in unprotected sex not only avoid thinking about the consequences of their risky behavior but also avoid discussing HIV among friends and family.
It might be possible to affect risky sexual behavior through greater discussion among network members about the risks of HIV if this discussion leads to greater consideration of the effects of risky behavior.
However, as discussed earlier, the desire to maintain a relationship may be too strong to overcome and attempts to counteract active denial of the risks of HIV through network based intervention might be futile.
Several notable study limitations should be mentioned. The primary limitation is the cross-sectional nature of the data collection design, which precludes us from drawing firm conclusions regarding the determinants of unprotected sex among homeless women. Collecting comparable data from the male partners, although outside the scope of this study, would have allowed us to examine the extent to which women-report and partner-reported data yielded similar findings.
Another limitation is that the study excluded non-English speaking respondents. Homeless women in Los Angeles who do not speak English may have individual, social network, or relationship characteristics that are associated with unprotected sex in different ways than English speaking women.
Because of this limitation, we do not know how well the findings from this study match the experiences of non-English speaking homeless women.
Women who speak only Spanish or some other non-English language may not use temporary housing services as much as English speaking homeless women in Los Angeles.
Despite these limitations, there are several notable strengths of our study. Analyses were conducted with a sizable probability sample of homeless women, thus allowing us to generalize results to a population of homeless women in the large urban setting of Los Angeles. Our study found that there are multiple factors at play resulting in unprotected sex among homeless women.
We found that unprotected sex is related to characteristics of relationships, individual attitudes, and interactions among members of personal networks. Our study improves on previous work that has explored these same issues because of our use of both personal network data collection and multi-level model analysis. This is the first study to incorporate relationship characteristics, partner characteristics, personal network characteristics and personal characteristics into one model predicting condom use by a highly vulnerable population.
This approach was necessary to capture the multi-dimensional influences on risky sexual behavior of homeless women. Our findings demonstrate the multi-faceted context of HIV risk for impoverished women and indicate that interventions and services should also be multi-faceted and comprehensive. We thank the women who shared their experiences with us, the service agencies that collaborated in this study, and the RAND Survey Research Group for assistance in data collection.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct Kennedy , 1, 2 Suzanne L.
Wenzel , 1, 3 Joan S. Tucker , 1 Harold D. Ryan , 1 Robin Beckman , 1 and Annie Zhou 1. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. METHODS Participants Participants in this study were women who were randomly sampled and interviewed in temporary shelter settings in the central region of Los Angeles County for a study of the social context of substance use and sexual risk.
Sampling Strategy Women were sampled from facilities with a simple majority of homeless residents persons who would otherwise live in the streets or who sleep in shelters and have no place of their own to stay. Personal Networks The analysis for this study was conducted on a sample of recent sexual relationships which was generated through a personal network interview with the sampled women. Data Analysis The goal of the data analysis was to produce a logistic multi-level model predicting a dichotomous measure of unprotected sex with the one-to-many personal network design described in Snijders, et al.
RESULTS Table I describes the characteristics of the women interviewed in this study, as well as the number of cases with data for the variables listed. Open in a separate window. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic and other correlates of HIV risk behaviors in a probability sample of homeless adults. Psychiatric symptoms, health services, and HIV risk factors among homeless women. Health Care Poor Underserved. Does HIV status make a difference in the experience of lifetime abuse?
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