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There are many rumors of secret military tunnels in the United States. If the rumors are true, machines such as the one shown here are used to make the tunnels. Remember that Area 51 is part of the test site. Most tunneling activity is under military installations and all information is highly restricted.

Former employees of said facilities have surfaced over the years to talk of massive underground installations in places like Area 51, the Northrop facility in Antelope Valley, California rumored to have 42 levels , and the Lockheed installation near Edwards, California. At least this amount is used in black programs, like those concerned with deep underground military bases.

Presently, there are deep underground military bases in the United States. Some of them were built even earlier than that. These bases are basically large cities underground connected by high-speed magneto-leviton trains that have speeds up to Mach 2. Several books have been written about this activity. The average depth of these bases is over a mile, and they again are basically whole cities underground.

They all are between 2. They have laser-drilling machines that can drill a tunnel seven miles long in one day. I was involved in building an addition to the deep underground military base at Dulce, which is probably the deepest base. It goes down seven levels and over 2. I helped hollow out more than 13 deep underground military bases in the United States. More thought-provoking images of tunnel boring equipment: I took care of John Fialla, who was best friends with Phil Schneider.

How many people know about Phil Schneider? Well, they were using tunneling machines back in the mids that could tunnel through a rock face at seven miles per day, that could cut through a rock face with high-energy impact lasers that could blow the nano-sized particles of rock so that there was no debris left, forming an obsidian-like core, and laying an inner core for unidirectional maglev trains that travel at Mach 2 to 2.

Why are they rushing to do this? Because they know that catastrophe is coming. A number of patents were filed by scientists at Los Alamos, a few federal technical documents were written — and then the whole thing just sort of faded away. Nuclear subterrenes work by melting their way through the rock and soil, actually vitrifying it as they go, and leaving a neat, solidly glass-lined tunnel behind them. The heat is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor that circulates liquid lithium from the reactor core to the tunnel face, where it melts the rock.

In the process of melting the rock the lithium loses some of its heat. It is then circulated back along the exterior of the tunneling machine to help cool the vitrified rock as the tunneling machine forces its way forward.

The cooled lithium then circulates back to the reactor where the whole cycle starts over. In this way the nuclear subterrene slices through the rock like a nuclear powered, 2, degree Fahrenheit 1, Celsius earthworm, boring its way deep underground. The first patent, in went to the U. The nuclear subterrene has an advantage over mechanical TBMs in that it produces no muck that must be disposed of by conveyors, trains, trucks, etc.

This greatly simplifies tunneling. If nuclear subterrenes actually exist and I do not know if they do their presence, and the tunnels they make, could be very hard to detect, for the simple reason that there would not be the tell-tale muck piles or tailings dumps that are associated with the conventional tunneling activities. The rock-melting drill is of a shape and is propelled under sufficient pressure to produce and extend cracks in solid rock radially around the bore by means of hydrostatic pressure developed in the molten rock ahead of the advancing rock drill penetrator.

All melt not used in glass-lining the bore is forced into the cracks where it freezes and remains …. There you have it: A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in soft rock or wet, clayey, unconsolidated or bouldery earth by simultaneously detaching the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and forming a supporting excavation wall liner by deflecting the molten materials against the excavation walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous wall supporting liner, and detaching the tunnel face circumscribed by the kerf with powered mechanical earth detachment means and in which the heat required for melting the kerf and liner material is provided by a compact nuclear reactor.

This patent further specifies that the machine is intended to excavate tunnels up to 12 meters in diameter or more. This means tunnels of 40 ft.

The kerf is the outside boundary of the tunnel wall that a boring machine gouges out as it bores through the ground or rock. So, in ordinary English, this machine will melt a circular boundary into the tunnel face. The melted rock will be forced to the outside of the tunnel by the tunnel machine, where it will form a hard, glassy tunnel lining see the appropriate detail in the patent itself, as shown in Illustration At the same time, mechanical tunnel boring equipment will grind up the rock and soil detached by the melted kerf and pass it to the rear of the machine for disposal by conveyor, slurry pipeline, etc.

And yet a third patent was issued to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration just 21 days later, on 27 May for a machine remarkably similar to the machine patented on 6 May A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in rock by progressive detachment of the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and simultaneously forming an initial tunnel wall support by deflecting the molten materials against the tunnel walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous liner; and fragmenting the tunnel core circumscribed by the kerf by thermal stress fracturing and in which the heat required for such operations is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor.

This machine would also be capable of making a glass-lined tunnel of 40 ft. I do not know if these stories are true. If they are, however, it may be that the glass-walled tunnels are made by the nuclear subterrenes described in these patents.

The careful reader will note that all of these patents were obtained by agencies of the United States government. Further, all but one of the inventors are from Los Alamos, New Mexico. However, for variable formations and unfavorable conditions such as soft, wet, bouldery ground or very hard rock, the NSTMs are far more effective. As many a frustrated inventor will tell you, the U. In the National Science Foundation commissioned another cost analysis of the nuclear subterrene.

Mathews Construction and Engineering Company of Rockville, Maryland produced a comprehensive report with two, separate, lengthy appendices, one and the other pages.

Mathews calculated costs for constructing three different sized tunnels in the Southern California area in The three tunnel diameters were: Savings of 12 percent for the 4. A penalty of 30 percent was found for the 3. The cost advantage for the NSTM results from the combination of,.

This report has a number of interesting features. It is noteworthy in the first place that the government commissioned such a lengthy and detailed analysis of the cost of operating a nuclear subterrenes. Just as intriguing is the fact that the study found that the tunnels in the 15 ft. Finally, the southern California location that was chosen for tunneling cost analysis is thought provoking. This is precisely one of the regions of the West where there is rumored to be a secret tunnel system.

Mathews study represent part of the planning for an actual covert tunneling project that was subsequently carried out, when it was determined that it was more cost effective to use NSTMs than mechanical TBMs? This would apply to Mars as well. It should be noted that the report did not specify how the subselenes and their crews would be transported to the Moon. Essentially, this kind of machine would be a hybrid, mechanical TBM Tunnel Boring Machine that incorporates elements of the nuclear powered subselene.

Although the machine would be nuclear powered it would have a mechanical cutter head that would bore through the lunar subsurface. This molten material could then be cooled to form a rigid ceramic material suitable for lining the interior of the tunnel. The second concept called for the use of special, tunnel dump trucks that would carry the muck out of the tunnel and dump it on the lunar surface.

The designers recommend use of a SP fission reactor for power, using liquid lithium heat pipes of the sort developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the nuclear subterrene. In the second tunneler design, there are no mechanical tunneling components.

Instead, the cone-shaped, nuclear powered tunneler melts its way through the subsurface like a subterrene. Some of the melted rock and soil is plastered against the tunnel walls to form a glass-like ceramic tunnel lining. The rest of the melted muck called regolith is passed out of the back of the tunneler and then carried to the surface for the disposal by the dump trucks that follow the tunneler through the tunnel. But NASA plans certainly give cause to wonder. Sacramento TBM project to divert water to swimming pools in the south.

Cosmos Clearance is required for entry. The DUMBO reactor consisted of a honeycomb of tungsten and uranium, through which hydrogen gas would be pumped; the nuclear reaction would heat the gas and thus produce thrust.

To test the concept, LASL built a mockup using an electrical heating source in place of the uranium. Gas pumped through the mockup reached o C, an impressive demonstration of the concept. Five holes were drilled by the Los Alamos team, and then three more by National Park Service personnel.

The NPS personnel reportedly found the machine easy to use, and were able to do the job with only minimal supervision.

The drilling operation attracted a crowd of curious tourists, and it was decided to repeat the demonstration at a more politically useful venue — Washington, D. Initial designs focused on building a nuclear-powered version of the melting penetrator, in which the reactor heat would simply melt through the rock. However, it soon became clear that it would be more efficient to use a combination of either rock melting and mechanical cutting, or rock melting and thermal fracturing.

Patents on each of these concepts were filed on each in January of The second version was designed for harder rock. As in the first version, an annular melting penetrator would melt a ring of rock in front of the machine, detaching the material in the center from the rock behind it. The rapid heating of the rock would cause it to expand, but this expansion would be uneven, with some hot areas expanding quicker than other, cooler areas. The difference in expansion would cause the rock to fracture and break up.

Many of you are familiar with him. Don actually said that a week after we booked the interview with him, the FBI showed up to his dwelling. TTD has not been able to contact Mr. It took several visits by several people to entirely do that complex and we used about 30 gallons of orgonite before every trace of DOR was absent from the atmosphere.

Gates Pass Base 3. Gila Mountain Area, south of Interstate 8 and approx. Grand Wash Cliffs, on western edge of the cliffs at the head of Grapevine Wash. Must be reached via hwy 93 and then unpaved roads. Page … 5. Hualapai Mountains, east side of the mountain range, about 35 mi.

SE of Kingman, AZ 7. Safford, near Safford Santa Catalina Mountains — base. In the vicinity of Hardy and Cherokee Village. Installation purpose not known. Saucer base southeast of Ludlow.

This is a U. China Lake, mind control and weapons research Darwin, CA, 4 miles dues west of Darwin Technology for secret projects. There are 3 saucer bases here. This area was very active in the s. It has been reported to go down 42 levels. It is heavily involved with electronics and hi-tech aerospace research. Kern River, CA the hollowed out mountain next to the hydroelectric facility at the Kern River Project near Bakersfield- reported saucer base Tunnels also connect the wineries north of Napa, used for white slavery and mind-control.

Has a saucer base. Norton Air Force Base- saucer base Near Palmdale if one takes Palmdale Blvd. One the eastern limit of Ave. One can see it better from the Three Sisters Hills to the south of the facility. Strange shaped disks raise out of the ground on pylons.

These attached disks glow and change color. It is involved in hi-tech aerospace technology. Santa Barbara County — placed in the thick diatomite strata This is listed as a Communications Antenna Field, but is doing much more.

Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA — very deep military base Tehachapi Ranch- 4 saucer bases, Tecachapi Canyon has a new underground base which was finished in Sept.

This complex tracks thousands of satellites, missiles, submarines, and UFOs. NORAD installation has miles of road underground. Fort Collins- base for Gray aliens Grand Mesa- Orion saucer base The site in Paradox Valley can be reached via Hwy. Massive base- reported saucer base Atlanta is believed to have several underground installations in its area, one to the north at Kennesaw Mtn.

This is SW Georgia in area of tunnels. The worst of the federal prisoners are placed in this underground prison which has 7, cells which are filled with about 2, federal inmates.

A track runs through the middle of the eerie underground facility. Food and showers are on the tracks, and the men are allowed showers once a week. The minimum of lighting is used and the men are beaten senseless if they talk at all.

Kinsley—an underground UFO base. Camp David—just north of the camp is an underground facility important to the intelligence agencies. Olney, actually the facility is between Olney and Laytonsville, on Riggs Rd. Suitland, MD- Classified archives of U. Vaults have extensive amounts of documents which are not indexed. Restricted access with a coded security card. High level intelligence groups operate in the area also. An AFB is also nearby. Francis Mountains, MO between St.

Two large underground facilities close to but separate from Groom Lake but controlled by the demonic beings are Papoose Range and Cockeyed Ridge S-4 underground bases. Also biological work is done, including the biological raising of small greys. Many levels have been built t these three complexes, and a 7 mile long run way which is actually 39 miles Page … has been built over Groom Lake, a dry lake.

There is an S-2, an S-4, an S-6, and an S underground installations. All the rest of the states have too. The Primary Underground facilities in New Mexico consist of: The Los Alamos facility dates at least back to Visitors to the deeper levels report humans kept in glass cylinders, plus many other strange things.

I have had the opportunity to debrief some people who have been in the lower reaches of some of these facilities. There are special badges, special uniforms, tube elevators etc. Angel Peak- reported saucer base. Serves as a UFO base, biological experiments, production center for small-grey drones. Wackenhut provides some of the security on the ground. Sandia Mountains NE of Albuquerque -reported saucer base Adirondack Mountains near Elizabethtown New York Metro area Plattsburgh near Canada and St.

Hood, and very close to Larch Mtn. Park of the Columbia Gorge. Coos Bay area has had three separate but coordinating underground facilities built for UFOs. The facility farthest east, about 20 miles inland in the wilderness near Hwy 42, has been shut down. It is now an old abandoned facility well camouflaged. The coast facility is probably still operational.

The first emporium in the corporation was kept by Major Joseph Colt on the west corner of Main and Market streets. Story, and many another successful business man. Edward Durfee and Jonah Hall operated the pioneer grist mill and saw mill. He was the pioneer silver smith, and introduced sewing machines in the community. To-day Palmyra boasts many good shops dry goods, hardware, jewelry, drug, grocery, and shoe stores. Different factories have been located here.

At present the Globe Manufacturing Co. The Garlock Packing Company. Garlock, inventor of a packing for steam engines. The Crandall Packing Co. The Triumph Packing Company. Since gas has been supplied to the village, while electricity was first furnished in The water system was installed in June 26, , seventeen men organized themselves as the Palmyra Union Agricultural Society, and held a three days fair that October.

From then until the present, successful annual fairs have been held on the extensive, well kept Fair Grounds on Jackson Street. This bank built and occupied until its failure in the offices and residence where now is the First National Bank.

The Palmyra Savings Bank, incorporated in April, , enjoyed a brief existence. Lyman Lyon and S. Gavitt carried on a private banking business from December, , until June, , when Lyon bought Gavitt's interest to continue alone until his death, in August, The Palmyra Bank, established by Pliny Sexton in , did business in the east section of the present Story store. In April, , these houses were associated and.

Cuyler, president; Pliny Sexton, vice president, and Stephen P. In this bank became the First National Bank with the following directors: Cuyler, pres ident; Pliny Sexton, vice president; Pliny T. Sexton, cashier; William H. The First National Block. The early paths through the forests have be come highways -- the first, Canandaigua road in John Swift, with others, cleared Ganargua creek to its junction with the Canandaigua outlet, and in it was declared navigable water.

This stream was the principal route until the opening of the Erie canal in The tumbled down collector's office on Canal street gives little idea of the business done by "Clinton's big ditch.

It carried freight and it carried people. When the packet approached a station a trumpet blared to set the town agog, the horses were put in a fast trot and with gusto drew the boat to the landing.

Morris Huxley -- known to all as Dad Huxley -- drove the omnibus to the first train to stop here. For thirty-four years Dad's hearty greeting and 'bus welcomed all arrivals. The omnibus service to the stations has been discontinued since the advent in of the Rochester, Syracuse and Eastern electric road, for this trolley does nearly all the local passenger business.

Henry Wells, afterwards founder of Wells College, starting from Palmyra, carried parcels short distances in a hand bag. His business grew until it needed a horse and wagon. This, merged with others, became the American Express Co. Henry Wells married his first wife -- Sally Daggett -- in the little weather beaten house that stands opposite Stafford street on the north side of Main street.

On November 26, , Timothy C. Strong sent out the Palmyra Register -- Democratic -- the first newspaper 28 in what is now Wayne County. Up to its end in this sheet often changed editors, names and politics. It was on the press of the Wayne County Sentinel -- in -- that the first edition of the Mormon Bible was printed. Gilbert did the type setting and press work. He kept a copy of the book in the original sheets, which is now owned by P.

The press used was recently sold to the Mormons by F. Other newspapers enjoyed each its brief existence. Frederick Morley issued the Palmyra Courier in and continued its publication until In it was known as the Palmyra Democrat; but in August of that year the present editor, E. Averill, bought it and restored the original name. He brought it to the support of the Republican party, and added a novel feature -- a page devoted to local items. In Anson B. Clemons and Frederick W. Clemons, his son, established the Wayne County Jour nal the first newspaper or printing house in the county to use steam power.

In Joseph Smith, Sr. For two years he kept a cake and 29 beer shop on lower Main street. Then he moved his family to a wild tract south of the village which, within this present year, the Mormons have bought as the well kept farm of William Avery Chapman. The Smiths were interested in things occult. With a "magic stone" they claimed to locate stolen articles and buried treasure, and to forecast the future.

In the summer of Joseph Smith, Jr. The second was announced that fall while others fol lowed hard apace until Smith said he was directed to [ Image: He went out at night and alone to return bearing a mysterious package which he said contained the treasure with the stones by which he could translate. These were found on Mormon Hill a Mecca for his disciples to this present day.

Sidney Rigdon, Oliver Cowdery the amanuensis, and Martin Harris, who furnished the money for printing, were conspicuous in the incipient stages of the powerful 30 [ Image: In the Mormon Bible appeared. That June saw the organization of the Church of Latter Day Saints with, beside the Smith family, some thirty members drawn from this and neighboring communities.

Sidney Rigdon, the first regular Mormon preacher, held a meeting in the rooms of the Palmyra Young Men's Association on the east corner of Main and Market streets. He was confronted by a small, unsympathetic audience. Late in the summer of Joseph Smith, Jr. In two were built of logs -- the one on a site in the village given by John Swift; the other, the Hopkins school in East Pal myra.

Much later the partisan spirit was rife and crept into educational matters to such an extent that two frame school houses were built -- the Federalist, taught by Blackman, and the Democratic, under Ira Selby.

Before the site of the present Roman Catholic Church was graded down, on the crest of the hill stood the Palmyra Academy, a two story brick building that boasted the first bell in town. One of the Three District Schools. One stood on the west corner of Main and Carroll streets; another on the north side of Jackson, between Cuyler and Fayette streets; and the third on the east side of Throop street.

The last teachers were: These three districts were united in as Union School No. March 19, , an act au thorized the village to levy taxes for a lot and building. April 11 the school was incorporated. The first board of trustees was A. Strong and Pliny Sexton; R. The first faculty was: French, principal; William M. Hance, seniors; Charles D.

Foster, juniors; Clarissa Northrup, juveniles; Edward M. French, Me linda C. Maria West, assistants; E. Lusk, instrumental music; C. French, vocal music; DeWitt Mclntyre, lecturer on physiol ogy. Corning, secretary, and Joseph C. The first building was used until when the present structure was built on the old lot. In a large study hall and other rooms were added. Hutchinsm - John Dunlap - W. Fitts - C. Hutchins - Henry F.

Curt - E. Fancher - A. Downing - H. Clark - George W. Pye - S. Dwight Arms - W. Deans - W. Bullock - - 34 [ Image: Palmyra Classical Union School. On the first day of November, , the King's Daughters opened a public reading room. In September, , a Library Association was formed with a five year charter from the state. The first gift of books was sixty volumes from the Patrons of Husbandry. In July, , the Association received a perpetual charter, and now, , the library numbers twenty-five hundred volumes.

The first meeting house in the village erected in on land given by General Swift for a Union [ Grave of John Swift. This same building was used as a town hall.

It was of wood, painted white with green blinds, and was burned in Around it, in true New England way, was the church yard -- now the "old cemetery. This was not the first burying ground in the town, for that was on the farm of Gideon Durfee, east of the village, recently purchased by Mr.

Here rests Gideon Durfee. In the [ Image: The Roman Catholic cemetery was consecrated during Palmyra Cemetery, from the West Gate. So the parish of the Presbyterian Church of Palmyra was this entire section.

Ira Condit organized a Congrega tional church in David H. Foster's house December 5, Later this church adopted the Presbyterian form of government and was connected with the Presbytery of Geneva until the formation of the Lyons Presbytery in The Presbyterian Church of Palmyra was incorporated the twenty-eighth day of September, , the date given in the certificate of incorporation filed in the office of the Clerk of Ontario county.

From the formation of the church until the pastors preached alternate Sabbaths in the east and in the west ends of the township. Among the early ministers were Mr. Johnson in ; in Eleazor Fairbanks, followed by Mr. Lane; , Hippocrates Rowe, who in occupied the only house on Canandaigua street; , Stephen M.

Wheelock, who went with the west ern part at the division. In the first church building -- situated in the eastern part of the town -- was used, but it was not completed or dedicated until As has been said, the west end Presbyterians built a meeting house in The certificate of incorporation of this latter branch, recorded in Canandaigua the thirteenth of May, , reads: We hereby certify that on the eighteenth day of March, , a number of male inhabitants residing within the limits of the Western Presbyterian Church in the town of Palmyra met pursuant to publick no tice, in the Meeting House in the Village of Palmyra, and agreed to be incorporated into a society to be known by the name of the Western Presbyterian Church and Society in the town of Palmyra, and proceeded to elect David White, Joel Foster, Henry Jes sup, Charles Bradish, James White, and Isaac Howell to serve as trustees of said society.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this 13th day of May, Francis Pomeroy assisted in the organization of this western branch. The present edifice was built in and dedicated in On the wall of the church, near the pulpit, is a 42 marble tablet sacred to the memory of Horace Eaton, D. Eaton lived in Palmyra until his death on the twenty-first of October, At a memorial service the Honorable Henry R.

Durfee said in part: It is our loss that we lament to-day. For him to die is gain. In this assemblage it is not so much the man of mark, of wide influence, of high at tainments, fitted worthily to bear the title of 'doctor of divinity,' as our friend endeared to us by long acquaintance and companionship, that we mourn. And I think that the personal qualities and traits which at tracted us and gained him our affection are at this time 43 uppermost in our minds.

In recalling the personal characteristics of our dear friend and pastor, it has seemed to me that one of the most marked was his constant and abounding cheerfulness. This arose, not from cynical indifference, or stoical fortitude for none was more sympathetic, compassionate and tender hearted than he -- but from the depth and serenity of his faith. His was the true poetic soul, to which 'a thing of beauty is a joy forever. He recognized with reverent delight the voice of the Great Creator in every harmony of the wind or wave, and His creative hand in every perfect form or tint of earth or sky.

And as in Nature, so also in literature and art, whatever was grand or beautiful found in him an enthusiastic and appreciative admirer. Nor was this refined, aesthetic taste and perception at all allied to weakness. On the contrary, he had in his character not a little of the granite of his native hills.

No war of elements or opinions, and no obstacles natural or conventional, could deter him from vigorously and valiantly following the path in which he believed his duty called him. He was not afraid to grapple with the great problems of the life that now is, and that which is to come, and with the profound truths of the Scripture; and he brought to their consideration a grasp of mind, and an intentness and clearness of thought which was most truly edifying to thoughtful minds.

And yet I think he loved especially to dwell upon the divine ten derness and compassion, and to entreat us by the mercies of God to be reconciled to Him. Yet his teachings and his life shall not fail from our memory. These shall rest upon and remain with us like a benediction, and an inspiration also, leading each of us with sweet persuasion to a nobler, purer, and higher life.

Among them were John Eaton, son of Dr. Eaton, who died before completing his course; Warner Bradley Riggs, who in October, , went as a home missionary to Texas, where he organized the Brenham Church, and was pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Dallas from until his death in March, , and Charles Foster Kent, Ph. Homer Satrac and Anna R. How like quivering flames they start, When I fan the living embers On the hearthstone of my heart!

Jesse Townsend, August, Hopkins, stated supply, January, Stephen Porter, stated supply, October, Angus Hugh Cameron, February, Peter McKenzie, May, In a frame meeting house was built on the west side of the Walworth road just north of where it is crossed by the Macedon road. November 9, , a Baptist church was instituted in the village -- at the home of Rev. Heart -- but after a year was received into the older church.

In, accord with an agreement made when these societies joined, the pastor preached alternate Sundays in his church and in the Palmyra Academy. A final separation came in February, , when the older society as the First Baptist Church of Macedon retained the property, while the younger moved to the village as the First Baptist Church of Palmyra.

The seventy- eight members of this latter branch elected for deacons R. Jackson, William Parke and E. Spear; for trustees, R. Jackson, William Rogers and Stephen Spear. Services were held in the meeting house on burial hill until it was burned in ; then in Will iamson Hall until the old stone church was dedicated January 28, This was torn down in to give place for the present brick structure which was dedi cated March 29, This church sent Mrs. Jane Mason Haswell to Burmah where she labored as a missionary from to It has given four ministers, Thomas Rogers, C.

Crane, Charles Shear and Albert Clark. Wilson, supply, December, Douglass, supply, November, Warham Mudge, February, Hardin Wheat, January, Addison Parker, October, Cyrus Thorns, September, These early followers of Wesley met in school house, barn, or grove until , when they legally organized them selves into a society and built a church near the corner of Vienna and Johnson streets, just north of the cem etery.

Here they worshipped until when the house was removed to Cuyler street, remodelled and used until the dedication of the present brick building, October 31, Allen and Charles D. Purdy represent this church in the ministry.

Joseph Colt and Benjamin Billings were the first wardens of the parish. Service was held in the Academy until February 1, , when the Right Rev erend Bishop Hobart consecrated the first building.

This was of wood and stood on the present site. In July, , the Right Reverend Bishop Coxe conse crated the present beautiful sandstone structure. The entire spire was given by George W. Cuyler, a memo rial for his children. Miss Amy Chapman went out from this church as a missionary to the Freedmen. Herendeen, rector of St. John's Church, Medina, entered the ministry from Zion Church. Right Reverend William Paret, D. The First Zion Episcopal Church. The Present Zion Episcopal Church.

John Twohay, July, Thomas Walsh, July, Ann's Roman Catholic Church was organized in by Rev. Edmund O'Con nor of Canandaigua, who had for some time said an occasional mass in Williamson hall. In or '49 William F. Aldrich sold the old Academy to the Ro manists, who used it as a church until when Bishop Timon blessed the present structure, and the congregation occupied it though unfinished.

During the congregation added a belfry and vestibule, while in October of that year a bell was hung the gift of Mrs Mary Darmody. The parish has given two can didates to the ministry -- Thomas M.

Moore and Fran cis Goggin, D. Bernard's Sem inary, Rochester. Ann's Roman Catholic Church. Her founders were many of them Revolutionary veterans, while there are recorded the names of forty-three who fought in At Queenston Heights he led a charge against Fort George and captured a picket post with some sixty men whom he did not disarm. One of the prisoners asked: The miscreant fired and mortally wounded the gallant commander. Gen eral Swift was buried where he died, July 12, , but was removed by his fellow citizens to Palmyra.

The legislature presented his son with a sword as an acknowledgment of the father's patriotic services; and hung a portrait of the General in New York City Hall.

The Civil War found Palmyra ready. Corning came home from the legislature to raise a company -- Company B, 33rd Regiment of Infantry. On May 16, , this company marched to the front with Joseph W. In Captain Seneca B. Mclntyre and Lieutenant A. Seeley took out company A, th Infantry -- raised almost entirely in Palmyra.

When Company B was mustered out in Henry J. Draime wished to re-enlist. He set about 61 raising a Veteran Cavalry company which he filled largely in Palmyra and led to the fighting line in No vember. All told, four hundred and forty-two men of Pal myra fought for the union.

Unfortunately, better fortunately, the list is too long to name each and every gallant soldier. In the Village Hall are two marble tablets inscribed with the names of those soldiers who died during the war. The soldiers and sailors met January 15, Garfield Post in September of that year. The first officers were: To-day the officers are: Eaton helped many fugitive slaves.

The 62 Doctor's study was in the belfry of the Presbyterian Church, just under the clock. One morning a number of fugitives were consulting with the Doctor about reaching the lake shore and crossing to Canada.

Of a sudden the most terrific clanging brought them terror [ Image: They besought their supposed benefactor not to give them up to their master; they prayed the Lord to be merciful. After twelve re sounding strokes all was still. The clock had struck the noon. William Thomas Sampson was born here February 9, In he entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis from which he was graduated at the head of the class of Sampson served afloat and ashore during the Civil War, and through the long peace from '65 to ' He was given command of the North Atlantic Squad ron in the spring of He arrived off Santiago the first day of June and assumed command of the Flying Squadron with his own.

Then began the blockade of Santiago harbor which continued until the third of July when Rear Admiral Sampson annihilated the Spanish fleet under Cevera. October 26, , William T. Sampson, tired and worn, came home to receive the warmest welcome the town could give, for Palmyra delighted to do him honor. Admiral Sampson died in Washington, D. On Sunday, May 11, his friends in Palmyra gathered in the Presbyterian Church for a memo rial service. The national government gave Palmyra a gun taken from the Spanish Almirante Oquendo, destroyed at Santiago.

The cannon was placed in a conspicuous place on Main street, and on Memorial Day, , was dedicated to the memory of Rear Admiral Sampson. Sexton delivered the following address: Yet, the grass grows greener and the flowers take on brighter hues in the fields whereon warring human beings have shed each others blood.

And the philosopher, taught by the lessons of history, and gifted with prophetic vision, easily perceives that war has been, and yet must be, a necessary agency in secur ing and preserving for mankind the inestimable bless ings of liberty and peace.

And to-day, as we are halted here for our brief dedicatory services by the side of this great cannon, we are thinking little of its terrible destroying power; but are regarding it rather as a comforting reminder of our beloved de parted son and brother, the illustrious Admiral Samp son, whose faithfulness, valor, and genius organized the marvelous naval victory which, at Santiago, wrest ed this gun from the control of the supporters of a de testable despotism and crushing tyranny which had long dominated some of the fairest lands of earth and ruthlessly oppressed millions of people.

The nation had kept from us his sacred dust, which we fain would have brought home to water with our tears and guard dur ing the years. It surely could not well do less than to place here, as it has done, on this greensward, along this village street once so familiar to our brother's feet -- this speaking signal of the last great and crowning achievement of his life. For this occasion it must suffice to say that with never abating zeal, from youth until death, all the great powers with which his Maker had endowed him, and all which the most sedulous cultivation de veloped in him, were unsparingly devoted to safe guarding and advancing the welfare and glory of his native land.

He knew no greater or sweeter duty than serving his country; and permitted himself neither rest nor indulgence when that duty called. Faithfulness was the keystone of his character; excelsior his motto; and manifold and splendid were his achieve ments. He was graduated number one. Park Benjamin in his history of the Naval Academy, says: All motives move thereto.

And gladly may we realize and agree that properly this memorial gun has been given to us of Palmyra not simply to minister to our gratitude, but also, and more, that its presence here shall through generation after generation, awaken our local pride and affection the more often to recount the inspiring story of the immeasurably valuable life of Admiral Sampson.

And so, with such impelling, and with all impelling, and with a depth of personal affectionate feeling which those not of Palmyra and not of Sampson's generation may not fully under stand, we do now by these simple services gratefully accept and lovingly dedicate this enduring trophy gun to the perpetuation of the memory of Admiral William Thomas Sampson.

And, with the nation and for the nation, we do also dedicate all of the inspirations of his blessed memory, even as he dedicated his whole life to the continuing service of his beloved country. The text of this book is in the public domain. No US copyright is stated nor implied. After returning from the war they began to look around for an occupation suitable to them for their life work, but as there was nothing much to choose from but farming, they began to look around for a choice in location.

Those who had been up in the northern part of New Hampshire were very much pleased with the Connecticut Valley. A good many young men married and settled in that part of the country. When their children grew up they heard of the good opportunities in northern New York, around Potsdam and Parishville in St.

The latter township was nearly all settled by people from Grafton County, New Hampshire. Other soldiers, after returning from the war, who had been in the western part of the country, thought very favorably of the Genesee country which at that time included nearly all western New York, and among the very earliest settlers of this country was General John Swift and his brother Philetus. After the close of the Revolutionary War they removed to a disputed territory in Pennsylvania.

General Swift had a commission and was at the battle of Wyoming and was also engaged in the Pennemite War where he set fire to a Pennemite block house and received a shot in his neck. After the massacre of Wyoming a remnant of the settlers resolved to seek another home. John Swift and John Jenkins were appointed agents to select and purchase land for their occupation.

John Jenkins had been employed by Phelps and Gorham as a surveyor and was acquainted with the Genesee country. In they purchased the township of land known as Wayne County in which are the towns of Macedon and Palmyra.

Swift made the first settlement, built and occupied the first trading house where now stands the village of Palmyra, then called Swift's Landing, at the mouth of Mill Brook, now just north of the Barge Canal on Railroad Avenue.

Jenkins built a tavern under the brow of the hill on the bank of the creek about two miles below Palmyra village. His party consisted of four men, Harris, Earl, Baker and Rawson. Near the cabin was the hunting camp of Tuscarora Indians to whom provisions upon several occasions, had been given. Early one morning the Indians crept up to the cabin, put their guns through between the unchinked logs, chose their mark and fired. Baker was killed, Earl was wounded and the others were unharmed.

Jenkins and Rawson each seized an ax as they sprang from their blankets and met the Indians as they rushed from the hut and eventually 12 drove them into the woods where they were lost to sight. In the melee Jenkins and Rawson managed to wrest two rifles and a tomahawk from their assailants.

At daylight Jenkins and Rawson, after burying the body of Baker, set out with Earl, the wounded man, to seek assistance and spread the alarm of a possible Indian uprising. After traveling the better part of a day through the woods, the party reached a small collection of log huts on the site of the present Geneva, where a possee was organized to search for the troublesome Indians.

Since the close of the Revolutionary War the American government had sought to make agreeable settlements with the Western New York Indians, who, claiming they were so bound by treaties, had mostly sided with the British in the struggle.

Colonel John Butler's Tory Rangers, an organization of British sympathizers from the Mohawk and Susquehanna settlements, that with their Indian allies had strewn death and destruction through the backwoods settlements of New York and Pennsylvania during the war, still made their headquarters at Fort Niagara, which was not given up by the British until , following an agreement over the New York and Upper Canada boundary line. The Rangers were not hesitating, either, to keep the Indians stirred up over the steady westward advance of settlers from the eastern states and the Hudson River valley settlements into the fertile wilderness of the Genesee country that returning soldiers were so enthusiastic over.

Taking up the trail of the Indians, who had recently left the hut, laden with plunder, the Geneva party followed it southward for several days and at last came upon two Tuscaroras in the woods near the Indian trading post called Newtown, on the Chemung river, six miles south of the present Elmira.

The surveyors who had accompanied the Geneva possee, declared that these Indians were with the party that had attacked them in the darkness at their cabin. With Johnstown, the nearest jail, many days march to the east, and with consequent small chance of getting the prisoners there, and with the trails still watched by patrols of Butler's Rangers, it was decided to give the Indians a trial by jury then and there and dispose of them likewise.

The verdict of the court was "Guilty. Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish, two Geneva residents employed by the United States as interpreters in dealing with Indians, were present at the trial. The prisoners were blindfolded, led into the woods and each dispatched with a blow on the head from the tomahawk captured by Jenkins and Rawson when the camp was attacked. The barbarity of this act, the aceounts of the execution state, were 13 excused by the exigencies of the times. Electrocution as a means of capital punishment was then unknown.

There was no rope handy that day on the wooded banks of the Chemung River. The executioners fell back upon the old English custom of putting a man out of misery with an ax. Having no broad ax with them the men of the law substituted the primitive Indian weapon, the "tomahawk.

When Swift and Jenkins bought this township, range 2, they at once began to survey off farm lots along Mud Creek. His death and funeral was the first in Palmyra. Harwood died in Lemuel Spear is given as the third settler. The land he purchased at that time he paid 20 cents an acre for. Spear lived in his wagon until he could build a log house.

He was from Massachusetts and had served in the Revolutionary War. Spear had purchased from Isaac Hathaway, land, paying for the same 20 cents an acre and on this tract settled a mile west of Palmyra village. He moved his family during the month of February, He came on with two yoke of cattle, some cows and a number of sheep. He found his way by blazed trees from Vienna to his purchase and his sled ran roughly upon little less than a track. The weather was mild and the stock fared well upon the growth of the fiats, a portion of which had been known as Indian Village.

The family, eleven in number, passed several months in a covered sleigh and rough hut until, having cleared and planted a few acres, they had time to build a log house. They brought with them provisions sufficient for a year and either killep. Shortly after the Spears had settled, Ebenezer, a son, made a journey on foot to Schenectady to purchase some wine for Mrs.

Harwood, who was ill. He was fourteen days on the way, carried his food in a knapsack and slept under shelter but four of the thirteen nights. The incident illustrates the true neighborly feeling then proverbially present. He died in His last surviving children were Ebenezer, Abram and Stephen. The latter kept the homestead. Ebenezer speaks as follows concerning current events: Our first boards came from Granger's saw mill on Flint Creek. Several years after we came in, Captain Porter built the first farm barn, and my father, the next one.

He went to Jerusalem with an ox team in , taking ten days in going and coming. His return was hailed with great joy, for pounding corn was hard work. Our coffee was made of burnt corn; our tea of hemlock and other bark and for chocolate, dried evans root was frequently used. Burnt corn cobs were used for saleratus in cooking. It was well for the pioneers that they had been brought up in the school of experience and knew how to avail themselves of the most scanty resources.

Sometimes the supply of flour would be nearly exhausted. The corn was ground in a hand mill. In the woods was plenty of game.

The streams were full of fish. The pioneers could not bring any household goods with them, therefore they brought only things most needed, many times living in the wagon until a log house could be built with no nails, with bark roof and stick chimney plastered on the inside with blue clay, wooden hinges with wooden latches for the door, using a splint broom instead of one made of broomcorn.

They also brought appleseeds to plant and start an orchard. Some of the old trees can be seen today in the country; and have grown to be very large.

The fruit was nearly all natural fruit. They also brought gourd seeds to plant so as to grow their own dippers. An eavestrough was made out of elm bark that conveyed the rain water to a trough made from a basswood log. This was their cistern for rain water.

Their farming tools were very crude, perhaps the plow would have wooden mould boards, or they might have a wrought iron plow called the "bull plow. A drag was made from a tree crotch, the teeth were large and most always dull. Too much praise cannot be given to the women who had bade farewell to kin and kindred to venture a residence in an unbroken wilderness to make their home far from neighbors, waiting for other settlers to come in and share with them.

But with undaunted courage and visions of a brighter day they pressed on to reach the goal. The amber smoke that curled from the stick chimney and floated skyward told the story that the foundation had been laid for civilization and prosperity.

Mud Creek almost from the start became a navigable stream as far west as Macedon, and was for a time the Mississippi of this country. It has been claimed by some that Swift's Landing was at the forks of Red Creek near the Central depot, while others say at the mouth of Mill Brook, which would be near the Barge Canal. This is where Milford Galloway told me it was. He said his father, Thomas Galloway, who was one of the old pioneers, told him so. This little settlement was known for miles around as Swift's Landing.

Sawmills and blacksmith shops were built, and the settlers who came later could build their log houses with brick chimneys instead of sticks and blue clay, and with shingle roof instead of bark.

Nails made by the blacksmith had to be sparingly used. A log store was put up on the site 15 of the New York Central depot by Zebulon Williams who kept supplies suitable for the times, and they could sell their wheat to Mr.

Williams for 35 cents per bushel. But the time at last came when the town was to be called Tolland instead of Swift's, Landing. But this name was not pleasing to the citizens. In between March and June a meeting was held to fix upon one of the names that should be suggested.

Daniel Sawyer, the brother of Mrs. Swift, was then for two reasons in a literary mood. First, he was engaged to Miss Dosha Boughton, the first school mistress. Second, he had been reading ancient history. Doubtless thinking that as ancient Palmyra had a Zenobia, so his modern heroine should have a Palmyra. It is not strange that he should urge this name with felicity and success. It was adopted with acclamation and the name of Swift's Landing, and Tolland, henceforth are to slumber on the pages of history.

The trials and privations of the early pioneers were many. Sickness and death were not of rare occurrence. The forms of disease and accident were numerous. There was often lack of care on account of small quarters.

The neighbors were kind and tender to the bereaved and hastened to give all assistance in their power. But as the country became cleared and the health of the pioneers began to improve, everything began to look brighter. But with all these hardships there was a charm in those old log cabins that lingered in the hearts of those old pioneers, and the story of the old log cabin days and pioneer life in after years they loved to relate.

With the women, the hum of the wheel and the beat of the loom, was music to their ear. To them it was pastime to convey the yarn from the spindle to the reel. And the bright prospects of the future was their happy dream. The husbands' horny hands betokened hard labor. He smiles as he watches the rank wheat nodding in the wind, or the tall corn spreading out to shade the rich alluvial soil. The year of finds Palmyra village with stores, shops and other enterprises to accommodate the people.

But a war cloud is rising in the East that is threatening the pioneers' home. The demands of England, our government cannot accept, and war is declared and the old flint lock musket is once more called upon for protection. The new settlers had hardly gotten upon their feet when they were called upon in defense of their country. Some went to Niagara, Pultneyville and Sackets Harbor. The farms and all business had to be left to the women and a few men who stayed at home and looked after things as best they could.

With the assistance of neighbors the families raised a good many crops, which they harvested. Care and anxiety pressed heavily upon the wives and mothers at home. On February 16, , glad tidings came to the heavy hearted. A treaty had been ratified by the Senate. Peace was declared and the War of was at an end. The news was received with great rejoicing. In this war General John Swift was made brevert General. Once more the hearts of the pioneers ware saddened, when in while at Queenstown Heights, led by a party to Fort George, were he captured a picket post, and some sixty men.

An oversight permitted the prisoners to retain their guns, and when one asked of them: Alexander McIntyre was standing by his side and he fell into his arms.

He was taken to the nearest house and there died. He was buried July 12, When the war was over the citizens of Palmyra exhumed his remains and they were buried in the old cemetery on Church Street in this village. His age was fifty-two years and twenty-five days. The New York Legislature, out of respect to his patriotism and bravery, presented a sword to his oldest son and dedicated a full length portrait of General Swift to be hung up in the city hall, New York.

And here, too, another one of the first sacrifices to the War of , was from this place. Major William Howe Cuyler was the first lawyer that opened an office in Palmyra, a man still remembered for his public enterprise.

He was the aide of General Hall. On the night of the 8th of October, , he was killed at Black Rock by a four-pound ball from the British battery at Fort Erie. The ball that passed through his body came into the possession of his son, William Howe Cuyler of this village. In Swift built an ashery on the bank of the brook on the south side of East Main Street, where in a man by the name of Wilson built a tannery on the same site of the ashery. Shortly after, he entered into partnership with Mr.

Wilson in the tanning and curing business. After a short time he purchased Mr. Wilson's interest and for a time operated the business alone. Several years later another ashery was built on the north side of the canal of which more will be said as we advance in our journey. Benjamin Palmer, father of George Palmer, immigrated to Palmyra in , where he died shortly after, leaving his family with small means, to struggle with the hardships incident to life at that period in such a wilderness as was western New York.

The toils and privations of boyhood served to nurture the qualities of self-reliance, endurance and daring. The means of acquiring scholastic education, as now understood, were not accessible to him, and the limited attainments of his life in this direction were the fruits of unaided efforts in hours snatched from the repose which labor served to demand. He learned his trade as a tanner of Mr.

Henry Jessup at Palmyra for two years, formed a partnership with him in , which continued successfully and mutually satisfactory until In , March 24, Mr.

After being in company with Mr. Jessup for fourteen years, which had proved to be a financial success, the field at Palmyra had become too limited for the expansive views of Mr. Palmer, and after an examination of the advantages presented by Rochester and other promising points, he selected Buffalo as his future home.

Selling out his interest to Mr. Jessup and taking the money he had made in the tanning business in Palmyra, he moved to Buffalo in He erected a large tannery and carried on a large business. He also became interested in various other enterprises that proved very profitable and with his keen judgment he became wealthy. Years afterwards his name was good for thousands, when he was conducting large operations, and controlling vast public trusts, and his name was highly respected at home and abroad.

Palmer was very much devoted to the church to which he belonged. In , he built a beautiful structure on Delaware Street, known as Calvary church, at a cost of eighty thousand dollars, and the whole was conveyed July 7, , to the society now occupying it. Palmer died September 19, The firm of Jessup and Palmer carried on a large business in tanning, curing, buying hides, selling leather and shoemaking. The tannery was located on the same site of the Galloway malt house.

At that time they had vats that were all out doors and called by the men, "The outdoor tan yard. The firm employed 16 apprentices and as many journeymen, besides farm hands and teams.

As many as 35 or 40 of these men lodged in the garret of the old vinegar factory at the west then the shoe factory. This was called by the men "the sky parlor. Vienna Street on which Mr. Palmer lived was laid out in , and at the time he lived here there were only 4 or 5 houses between his house and the grist mill on the ea. The west end was called Aarondale iIi honor of Aaron Bristee, the only colored man in town with a family. Palmer built the first barn on the street. General Rogers being at the raising of the barn, took charge of the ceremonies, naming the building by breaking a bottle and calling out, "The chief depository of Aarondale.

This old building was afterwards used for a steam grist mill and was run by George Jessup. In the 70's Mr. Taylor bought the property and enlarged the building and had a vinegar factory for a good many years, then later a malt house. Now it is owned by C. Sessions and has been for several years. In the vat system at the old tannery was done away with when 18 a brick structure was built and the work was all done under cover.

This improvement vias made four years after Mr. Palmer had withdrawn from the firm. After carrying on the business alone for a time, Mr. Tuttle became a partner. The firm name became Jessup and Tuttle, which continued until , when the building was burned and the tannery business came to an end. Later the late James Galloway acquired the property, enlarged the building and converted it into a malt house.

He also put up a steam saw mill in the rear. Logs were bought in different parts of the country, floated down the canal and sawed into lumber. In the 90's Mr. Galloway sold the entire plant to Mr. After a short time he started to improve the property and after paying out a good deal of money and the malting business began to wane, he abandoned the project and the plans were never carried out.

The double house we see at the west end was remodeled and has been occupied since as a double dwelling house. Around the late Fred W. Clemons bought the property. The double house was once the hide house for the tannery. Merrick stopped work on the building, that was the last attempt to keep the building up and it fast went to decay.

Melissa Knapp purchased the old wreck and tore it down. The future will reveal its fate. Knapp passed away in August, Across the way from the shoe factory are the old General Swift buildings where in , a sign "Drake's Wagon and Sleigh Shop" could be seen. The cellar at the old Swift house is in the north end but not much like a modern cellar.

At the foot of Main Street stands the old George Jessup house. He was the son of Deacon Henry Jessup who died in In the 30's this old white brick house was one of the finest in the village. Jessup lived and brought up his family. He died in the 90's. His children had already married and gone away, and with no one to look after the property, this once fine old brick house fast went to decay. The trolley company purchased the property.

Now as we enter the old house and gaze on its deserted and forsaken rooms that are open to all who care to enter, we catch a glimpse of the old winding stairs with its hand carved railing that would do credit to anyone today to duplicate the same.

In those days William Kellogg was considered a fine workman and one of the best builders a. Many a fine house in town. The old iron latches are still on the doors. The old window sills made of solid oak being exposed to the weather all these long years, show that time has made its mark and they are fast going to decay.

The time is not far distant when this old house will be torn down and the old Jessup house at the foot of Main Street with its solid and uncracked walls that has stood the test for so many years, will be forgotten.

When Henry Jessup, sr. Later Jessup and 19 Foster in the 50's had a machine shop where they made grain drills and plaster sowers. Osborn had a dry house, then came the electric light plant. After serving in this capacity for several years it was at last torn down. Jessup's land extended east so as to take in the Dealer's factory. The east line wa.

Before the Erie Canal went through, the street past the gas house on Railroad Avenue, was not opened up.

The Montezuma turnpike extended past the Dealer's factory to Jessup's corner, but when the canal went through, the state had to take care of the little brook that runs under the canal.

A culvert had to be made to carry the water under the canal, so they made it long enough, so they could layout the street by the gas house. Later in the 50's they widened the canal and when the old wooden bridges had become unsafe they had to have new bridges.

They were made of iron and were longer. The State would not build two bridges and the town could not afford it, so the one on Throop Street was not put up. Jessup went to the village board and wanted to have the land come back to him, but this the trustees of the village refused to do. Therefore it still remained a street. Now the old canal is filled in so that traffic is again opened up which adds very much to the safety since the coming of the automobile.

At the coming of the Erie Canal a large warehouse called Jessup's warehouse, was built at the east end of the basin on Throop Street.

This building in the 50's was occupied by Philip Palmer and Henry Tallou, who were in the produce business for a time, when Mr. Tallou withdrew from the firm and Mr.

Palmer carried on the business alone for a time. He closed the business in and went West where he died a few years later.

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