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Elgar, however, is none too pleased. Curmudgeonly comedy by Christopher Douglas and Andrew Nickolds. Produced by Dawn Ellis. Desert Island Discs Revisited: During his career he umpired 65 Test matches, 92 one-day internationals and three world cup finals.
Heard for the first time on Radio 4 Extra, Dickie talks to Sue Lawley about his church-going childhood in Barnsley, and his anxieties about punctuality - arriving as he has done at least four hours before time at Buckingham Palace, Chequers and The Oval. The Best Of Latitude. The MC5's Wayne Kramer is a rock radical with a story to tell. It's also time for a new don of Sharing Is Caring. He'll be going deep into his record collection for his six track selection. For the tender-hearted souls, Huey will be Doo Wop-ping That Thing once again and celebrating the places and people listeners miss in Homesick Blues.
Plus, as always he'll be wishing love, peace and soul as he turns the clock back and gets down with the Soul Train. Colin Greenwood's Sunday Service. Radiohead's Colin Greenwood presents the last of three shows as he sits in for Jarvis Cocker. For this final show, Colin presents a selection of old and new music he discovered on a recent trip to South Africa.
Colin was the founding member of Radiohead along with singer Thom Yorke. The band has released eight albums to date and have sold more than 30 million albums worldwide. BBC Radio 1 Stories: Many people want to be famous, and an increasing number of young, attractive girls have found a way of getting a glimmer of that fame while earning a fast buck.
Flick through your TV late at night and you'll find dozens of TV stations dedicated to live babes - video chat channels where young women take calls from viewers live on-air and bare almost everything.
What are the risks? What did their family and friends say when they found out what they do for a living? What do their futures hold? She has loads of experience in the glamour industry, from babe channels to the front cover of FHM. We also hear from Dan, who admits logging on to webcam sites most days, and a celebrity agent who knows what happens to the career prospects of girls who strip naked on camera. Composer Of The Week: This week sees the 70th anniversary of composer of the week, which originally launched on 2 August and is one of the longest running programmes in radio history.
On Friday 2 of August, Donald will invite listeners to suggest names of composers who have not previously featured in the programme. Donald and the team will pick one of the composer suggestions to be the subject of a special Composer Of The Week broadcast this Christmas The first ever composer of the week was Mozart and the programme that falls on the anniversary day is an exploration of Schumann.
This week, Donald Macleod explores the work and life of the prototypically Romantic composer, Robert Schumann, who drew his inspiration as much from literature and the dramas of his own life as from the music of the composers he revered — above all, Bach, Beethoven and Schubert. Largely self-taught, Schumann immersed himself in one musical medium until he felt ready to move on and tackle another.
Throughout the week the programmes look in turn at his five major fields of compositional activity: For his first 10 years as a composer, Schumann focused almost exclusively on the piano.
He was a virtuoso pianist and had originally envisaged a solo career, so it was a natural place for him and this first programme of the week to start. First performed in by the Concertgebouw of Amsterdam, it's a work the composer wrestled with over several years.
The fast opening section came into being in , but Matthews couldn't immediately find the way forward, and when he did a year later, the continuation was even faster, a whirling, scherzo-like episode. Once again, the composer ground to a halt, unable to continue. The 'turning point' came with a complete change of direction, music that was very slow and intense though based entirely on the same material that was heard earlier.
The overall impression is, as Matthews puts it, "of complex momentum countered by expressive simplicity. A cappella vocal group Naturally 7, live at the BBC Proms, with a sound-world that ranges from scratching and drums to brass and guitar, all produced with just the human voice. Who needs instruments when you have seven voices and seven bodies? Building on the heritage of gospel with a style described as 'vocal play', the group performs its own material alongside arrangements of classics including George Harrison's While My Guitar Gently Weeps and Phil Collins's In The Air Tonight.
Book Of The Week: The Pink Sari Revolution. Just in the last few months another terrible gang rape hit the headlines. Sampat Devi Pal was raised in India's notoriously corrupt Uttar Pradesh region, was married off at 12, had her first child at 15 and is essentially illiterate. Yet she has risen to become the fierce and courageous founder and commander in chief of India's infamous Pink Gang, a 20,member women's vigilante group fighting for the rights of women in India.
In narrating the riveting story of the Pink Gang's work on behalf of a young girl unlawfully imprisoned at the hands of an abusive politician, journalist Amana Fontanella-Khan explores the origins and tactics of a fiery sisterhood that has grown to twice the size of the Irish army.
Amana is a Mumbai-based writer of Pakistani and Irish descent. In this first programme, Dr Linus Scott is confronted by two young women who appear to have the same nightmare. Can Alice Pyper - the troubled visitor to the village of Ait - be connected to the phenomenon? Letting Out The Light. Stephen Gill is a Sony Award-winning radio writer - and a gemmologist.
His belief is that the processing of gems - cutting, grinding and polishing - is not to impose a beautiful shape but to 'let out the light' of the stone. Through interviews with gemstone cutters as they work, dealers at markets and through poetry, prose, stories and legends about them, this programme reveals what has made mankind treasure gemstones throughout history. Stephen travelled from Japan to Sri Lanka and the United States listening to gem dealers and stone cutters, gathering their stories and the sounds of their work.
Michael Dyber — one of the finest gem-cutters in the world - recalls working with a crystal weighing 26 kilos! Stephen delves into the history of the Chhatrapati Ruby, first documented in AD, and Nimal Pathirana tells the story of the sapphire in Princess Diana's engagement ring.
While choreographer Sir Frederick Ashton is struggling with a teetering love affair, Princess Margaret asks him to create a new ballet for the 80th birthday of the Queen Mother. Christopher William Hill's poignant comedy is based on real events in the life of the Sir Frederick Ashton, and imagines Ashton's struggles with a challenging commission and, simultaneously, his increasing difficulties in managing a fragmenting love affair.
In his early 70s, the celebrated dancer and choreographer had for some time been living with the mercurial Martyn Thomas. It was a volatile relationship in which Ashton, by many years the older partner, had become increasingly insecure, adding to his fairly constant anxieties about maintaining the success of his glittering career, and making enough money to live on. Over the years, Ashton had become fairly well connected to royalty and was an accustomed visitor to courtly functions.
It was the Queen Mother with whom he established a particular friendship, inspiring Princess Margaret to ask Ashton to commission a new ballet for her mother's 80th birthday. Ashton decided to use the music from Rachmaninov's Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, with Leslie Collier and Mikhail Baryshnikov in the principal roles.
It's and Stephen Sefton is drifting. Just a year earlier, he'd left London in a fever of idealism to fight in the Spanish Civil War. Now he is back and injured both mentally and physically. He has turned into a seething mass of self-pity. He's at rock bottom and penniless. So when he sees an advert for an assistant to a writer, he applies. His interviewer is the People's Professor, Swanton Morley - whose type of learning is the sort scorned by academia but loved by the masses who lap up his books with titles like 'Morley's Art for All' and 'Morley's Old Wild West'.
His latest project is to be called The County Guides. It's a typically ambitious plan to celebrate the best of England, county by county, from the wheelwrights of Devon to the shoemakers of Northampton, and covering sport, natural history and every other conceivable subject in between. They're starting in Norfolk, but they're going to be distracted by a dark discovery and a host of eccentric characters - not all of whom react well to Morley's manner, his pedigree or his unflinching quest to reveal the truth.
Andrea Levy's fourth novel, Small Island is set in London in It tells the story of a white landlady, Queenie Bligh, whose neighbours don't approve when she takes in Jamaican lodgers, and the racist treatment of Commonwealth men who risked their lives to join the fight against Hitler. Adapted from the book by Robert Harris and read by Nigel Anthony. Webb reveals that a German magazine is claiming to have discovered the private diaries of Adolf Hitler. Hitler was supposed to have given up writing around - which would make this one of the greatest finds of all times.
Rupert Murdoch is interested but wants an expert opinion, so he asks Trevor-Roper. A diary would be a momentous discovery, but Trevor-Roper is sceptical. On a trip to Zurich, Trevor-Roper is shown an apparent archive of diaries, the scale of which amazes him.
Wilfred Sorge, Jan Hensmann and Peter Koch respond to his doubts point by point until he finally endorses the diaries as genuine. Rupert Murdoch then offers them three million dollars for the world rights. Michael Vaughan and Phil Tufnell with the latest cricket chat and interviews ahead of the third Ashes Test between England and Australia. His first choice is one of the best loved songs by rock band The Kinks which is accompanied by a much-requested hit from the Electric Light Orchestra.
Plus there's the Record and Album Of The Week, the daily love song dedications and two listeners test their music knowledge on PopMaster. An acclaimed saxophonist, Benny started his BBC broadcasting career in and was on air right up until his death in at the age of His much-loved Radio 2 shows defined Sunday afternoons for several generations of listeners with their mixture of jazz and selections from the Great American Songbook.
Leo Green has followed in his father's footsteps and is himself a saxophonist who has worked extensively with the likes of Jools Holland and Jerry Lee Lewis to name but two. He is one of the driving forces behind London's annual BluesFest - highlights of which can be heard on Radio 2 this autumn. Benny died on Monday 22 June , having missed his Radio 2 show from the preceding day. The script for that missing show has recently been unearthed by the Green family, and on 6 August Leo will be recreating it on Radio 2, using his father's words and selection of music.
Daniel Harding returns to the Proms after 10 years, directing the Mahler Chamber Orchestra, with which he has a long association, in a programme exploring the subtly different properties of the keys of C major and C minor. Paul Lewis is the soloist in Mozart's majestic C major piano concerto, which contrasts with the composer's austerely beautiful Masonic Funderal Music.
Two great symphonies acutely expressive of light and shade, Schumann's Second and Sibelius's Seventh, complete an imaginative and stimulating sequence of works. It was less than a century before Mozart's birth that the Viennese and their allies drove the Turks from the gates of Vienna and pushed south, creating a large empire. By the time Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven were walking its streets, it had become a vibrant cosmopolitan city where the aristocracy lived in close proximity to the lower classes and catholic German speakers rubbed shoulders with immigrants from across the empire.
With the ideas of the enlightenment being discussed in every coffee house, and a population with money to spend, the scene was set for the composer of The Marriage Of Figaro, Die Entfuhrung and The Magic Flute to entertain them.
The line-up comprises vocals, flute, percussion, viola, guitar and whistle. The music session is interspersed with poetry readings. In a three-part series Allan Little charts the re-emergence of Turkey as a powerful global force. Until very recently, Turkey's story seemed an entirely positive one. Two decades of sustained economic growth continued to transform the country.
The ruling AKP government had, at last, seemingly achieved a balance long sought by a large proportion of the Turkish population: The initially reforming AKP leadership addressed the complaints of minorities and those who felt excluded in the secular Republic. It successfully removed the army from political life. When negotiations to join the European Union stalled in , it sought to invigorate co-operation and trade with neighbouring countries in the Balkans, North Africa and the Middle East.
Then an environmental protest in Istanbul's Gezi Park turned into nationwide demonstrations against a government that many found increasingly autocratic, constantly justifying its actions by the ballot box, claiming that its 50 per cent majority gave its policies a democratic mandate.
Allan analyses the rise of the AKP and the Republican tradition they so successfully challenged. Matthew Sweet examines philosophical problems with a live audience and a panel of experts in a pub. Free will, exploitation, sex, sexism, blame and shame are just some of the topics to be mulled over in this series of The Philosopher's Arms.
The distinguished writer of detective novels Gladys Mitchell created the formidable amateur sleuth Mrs Bradley. This mystery is dramatised from the fast, funny and imaginative novel first published in Mrs Lestrange Bradley played by Mary Wimbush investigates the disappearance of Rupert Sethleigh and the discovery of a headless body in the village of Wandles Parva. Gladys Mitchell launched her long and prolific literary career with Speedy Death and continued to produce at least one book a year for the rest of her life.
In , she won the Crime Writers' Association silver dagger award. Her numerous loyal followers included Philip Larkin. Lammo is joined by comedian Robin Ince as he returns for his stint as Musical Profiler. Can he identify a 6 Music listener just from a selection of their musical choices? Tonight's concert has a regal theme to tie in with the 60th anniversary of the Queen's Coronation, and has music fit for every royal occasion. Plus a performance of a piano concerto composed by Malcolm Arnold for three hands at two pianos.
Arnold wrote it for his friends, husband-and-wife duo Cyril Smith and Phyllis Sellick after Cyril lost the use of his left side following a stroke. This year the Proms will be broadcast on more BBC platforms than ever. From the bombed-out, broken-down cities of the North they came, a stream of pasty-faced, earnest young men and women in trench coats and black clothing with a new music that sowed the seeds of what became commonly known as 'indie' - totally changing the nation's musical landscape.
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I'm looking for a female between lbs. I love to have fun in the bedroom, but nothing painful, aka s m. I truly love giving oral, and dont expect the favor returned. You can even sleep over if you want. Mascarenhas discovered that exposure to radiation leaves bones weakly magnetised. If levels of background radiation. This means that if the age of the bone is known, it can be measured to determine how much radiation it has been exposed to. A destroyed Hiroshima ater the bomb was dropped in A team at Johns Hopkins found that the presence of a paying audience can lit performance quality by 20 per cent.
A team in Vienna has found a link between education levels and life expectancy. Education gives people beter self-control and forward-planning skills, they say.
Accident and trauma victims with type O blood — around 45 per cent of the population — may be at significantly higher risk of dying than people with similar injuries who have less common blood types, according to new research carried out at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital.
More research is therefore needed before hospitals rewrite their trauma treatment rule books, the researchers say. This is good news for those with smug, superior friends: The medial temporal lobe, a part of the brain associated with fact-based memory, sufers from accelerated age-related atrophy in the sedentary, they say. Every minute, a million plastic botles are bought around the world, yet only a small proportion of these are recycled — many end up in the sea.
Why is plastic such a big environmental problem? You link those together with an ester bond, and lots of ester bonds in a row generate a long chain — a polyester. Polyethylene terephthalate or PET [a common type of polyester] — the stuff plastic bottles are made of — is incredibly difficult to break down.
Where was the plastic-eating enzyme discovered? In , a Japanese group spectacularly found bacteria in a recycling dump that were essentially living off the plastic, digesting it.
What we think has happened is that these bacteria swapped eating natural polyesters for human-made ones, just by mutating one of the enzymes they were making. How did you study the enzyme? We took the gene for this enzyme and made lots in the lab. We took it to the Diamond Light Source, a massive X-ray microscope, and were able to.
That allowed us to compare it. It is as if the enzyme [in the bacteria] has evolved from a cutin-digesting enzyme and then became a plastic-digesting enzyme just by changing the shape of its surface a little bit. Getting the 3D structure helps you see how the enzyme works: Why engineer a better version of this enzyme? It takes weeks for these processes to happen. How would the enzyme be used in recycling? That rarely happens because when you make it into plastic pellets during the recycling process, it loses some.
Once they are in the environment, plastics can break down into tinier pieces that are harder to clear up and are ingested by animals. This releases CO2, which is not good either. Our idea would be that you have a large vat of plastic bottles, pour the enzyme solution in and digest it to its original building blocks. It can do making it per this because one of its enzymes has mutated. That think that if we created large amounts of this enzyme, we could use it to break down plastics.
A team at the Apenheul Primate Park in the Netherlands showed Samboja, an year-old female orangutan, pictures of potential mates on a steel-reinforced touchscreen computer. The images had been gathered from an international ape-breeding programme. Why did they do that? What did they find? The team is now working on puting together a more robust device for a second atempt at geting her to swipe right.
The rainbow-hued Calumma uetzi was found in the remote mountains on northern Madagascar and is at its most impressive when trying to attract a mate. Through X-ray scanning, the researchers found a large hole in the roof of its skull, directly over the brain. A similar hole has been seen in six other chameleon species, all of which live more than 1,m above sea level.
A new contraceptive pill is being developed. The drug, named EP, contains a protein that binds to the surface of the sperm and slows those little swimmers down. The researchers suggest that this treatment could provide a contraceptive window effective 24 to 48 hours after administration of the drug. If we ever master space tourism, Uranus is unlikely to become a favourite holiday destination. Researchers have learned that its upper atmosphere is permeated by hydrogen sulphide — the gas that gives rotten eggs their distinctive stench.
By using infrared spectroscopy, the study of how light and matter interact, they were able to determine the chemical composition of the gases that make up the clouds. These differences in atmospheric composition were likely imprinted during the formation of these planets. This new information means that Uranus was formed somewhere colder than Jupiter and Saturn, showing that those planets have kept their relative positions.
A paper in the Journal Of Chemical Physics describes how researchers working in cryogenic conditions coated ice with molecules of carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia, and then exposed the ice to a stream of low-energy electrons, or LEEs.
This mimics conditions in space, where such basic molecules can be. The research suggests that rather than forming here on Earth, amino acids — the building blocks of life — may have formed in space over long periods of time, and then been delivered to our planet by a comet or meteorite impact. The same team had previously shown that simple molecules in similar conditions could combine to form ethanol, the intoxicating substance found in alcoholic drinks, but glycine is far more complex.
The experiment by the team at the American Institute of Physics mimicked the conditions found in space. It can be fired up with favourite music. Why the long face? Horses respond more positively to people that they have previously seen smiling, and more cautiously to those they have previously seen scowling, psychologists at the Universities of Sussex and Portsmouth have found.
They might send a shiver down your spine, give you goosebumps or even move you to tears. Songs like these seem to reach inside you and touch something that nothing else can. A recent study by the team suggests that songs a dementia sufferer finds emotionally resonant may alleviate their anxiety by increasing brain activity. This is the part of the brain that chooses which stimuli are worthy of attention, and happens to be one of the. With the help of brain scans, the researchers found that patients listening to their personal soundtrack exhibited significantly higher functional connectivity in the visual, salience and executive networks, and the cerebellar and corticocerebellar network pair, compared to patients scanned in silence.
The authors point out that the small sample size of 17 patients and limited scope of the research mean the results are not conclusive. In each episode, we talk to some of the brightest minds in science about the ideas shaping our future:.
I do it because I realise it is good for my lungs, my heart and my brain. For a long time, the positive feelings that runners describe has been put down to endorphins. These are peptides that our bodies produce which activate opioid receptors in the brain. These molecules are neurotransmitters that are similar in structure to the main chemical in cannabis. We got a small group of enthusiasts to go for a short run, only half an hour, outdoors.
Previous experiments have involved much longer runs in a lab setting. So what did we find? Well, once their blood was analysed it was clear that even a short run had had a striking effect. She is aware of the profound. She is a keen marathon runner and is now progressing to running ultra marathons. So even a short, easy run can bring some people a naturally produced chemical high.
But why do we have this system at all? Any other exercise sloths care to join me? Now, NASA has just announced funding for its latest X-plane, a commercial jet capable of flying at those same supersonic speeds faster than the speed of sound , without the disturbing the peace below. It has a long, pointy nose and. NASA plans to start flying the plane by , with testing over highly populated areas completed by Concorde began taking passengers in , but it was soon banned from flying supersonic over land in the USA and Europe because of the noise it created.
If your hand gets tired signing autographs for adoring fans, then you might be able to afford this signing machine. Each of these machines has moving parts that have been assembled by hand and mechanically coded for the owner.
Need to stop the kids from scrolling through social media late at night? This small cube plugs into your router and manages the times your devices can access WiFi and mobile data, and blocks your choice of nefarious websites.
Meater is a smart thermometer that connects to an app on your phone. It will tell you when the meat is perfectly cooked and how long you should let it rest before tucking in. RedKey securely and permanently wipes your data: A group of companies is pulling that gum up off the streets, and turning it into pairs of shoes. Gumdrop, a Dutch sustainability company, has invented a compound called Gum-Tec, 20 per cent of which is made from gum prised from the streets of Amsterdam.
A kilogram of gum is used in every four pairs of shoes. We believe the ability to see and understand the Earth live and unfiltered will help all of us better appreciate and ultimately care for our one and only home. Initially available to governments and enterprises, EarthNow also promises mass market applications that can be accessed from smartphones.
The livestream will come from a large group of satellites, each equipped with an unprecedented amount of onboard processing power. Now, though, Shimizu Corporation is developing robots to take care of as many of those hours as possible. The Robo-Welder has a robotic arm that it uses to weld steel, and the Robo-Buddy is a multipurpose robot that can install ceiling panels and construct floors. The third robot, Robo-Carrier, can lug one ton of plasterboard to a designated location, using lasers to navigate and recognise obstacles.
Robots are a feature in most types of manufacturing, with the automobile industry now using one robot for every five human workers. Yet construction has always been resistant to automation, largely because building sites are harder to navigate than factory floors. Although the robots will save thousands of human hours, they can only take on a small fraction of the work on a typical high-rise.
Every day, million stir sticks are used, so the Stircle could be a fun way to cut down on waste. A two-armed robot recently took 20 minutes and 19 seconds to assemble an IKEA chair; a task that humans usually manage in minutes. The heart-rate data on the Fenix was accurate when tested against medicalgrade sensors.
It calculates VO2max over. But the longer I used the watch, the more accurate it became. I could access all my data in the Garmin Connect app. The watch tracks tonnes of different sports, including new crazes such as swimrun and paddleboarding. The watch was simple to use when running, acquired a GPS signal quickly and tracked flawlessly, even on routes with tunnels or dense tree-cover.
During exercise, the Suunto read my heart rate bpm higher than our control medical-grade sensor. It gives a VO2max reading after each workout, and mine was a little low, consistent with an overestimated heart rate. The Suunto Movescount app is frustratingly bare-bones, and you need to use the desktop version for most of the advanced functions mapping routes, planning workouts and examining data.
They allow you to see where other people are running or cycling in your city, so you can crowdsource some great routes. A Space Odyssey 50 years ago, the idea of them has captured the public imagination. The astonishing fact is that wormholes are a natural consequence of current theories of gravity, and were investigated by Einstein himself over 80 years ago.
Ever since, researchers have been trying to find out if such a bizarre theoretical possibility could be a reality. And now they have made a major breakthrough — one which exploits deep connections between the nature of space and time and the laws of the subatomic.
Einstein first investigated the properties of wormholes with his colleague Nathan Rosen in , using his theory of gravity known as General Relativity. Now called the Einstein-Rosen bridge, this seemed to open the way to taking shortcuts through space and time,.
This is the original wormhole version investigated by Einstein. It seems to ofer a shortcut through space and time, and thus the possibility of efectively travelling faster than the speed of light. Together with fellow theorist Robert Fuller, he showed that the. Einstein-Rosen bridge would collapse almost as soon as it formed. This requires the two black holes to be in direct contact with each other, consuming the radiation that each spews out.
But while this keeps the Einstein-Rosen bridge intact, it also means the wormhole might actually be a longer route than simply travelling directly from one black hole to another. It follows the discovery of a new way of keeping the bridge intact based on a surprising link between wormholes and quantum theory the laws of the subatomic world.
It emerged during attempts to solve a problem that has obsessed some of the greatest theorists of our time, including the late Stephen Hawking: Black holes will destroy anything that is drawn into them, like this star. Yet wormholes could provide a way out. The trouble is, this contradicts one of the key principles of quantum theory, which states that information can never be destroyed.
For decades, Hawking and many others tried to resolve the paradox without success. And it lies in the ability of wormholes to provide a way out of black holes. While ordinary matter always generates a gravitational pull, the negative energy produced by this exotic matter generates an antigravitational repulsion.
Amazingly, such energy is known to exist. The same goes for the exotic matter — no one has any idea how to create the stuff, let alone use it keep a wormhole open long enough to fly through. The result is a wormhole that takes magnetic fields in at one place and then allows them to magically reappear somewhere else.
Alvaro Sanchez and his colleagues at the Autonomous University of Barcelona pulled of this feat by creating a sphere made from special conducting materials that respond to magnetic fields in diferent ways.
Carefully arranged in layers, these materials have the efect of modifying the way empty space transmits magnetic fields. The result is a device that acts as a wormhole where a magnetic field enters on one side of the sphere, completely disappears once inside, and then appears again on the other. This is no mere party trick, either. The wormhole device allows magnetic fields to travel from place to place without afecting anything on the way.
According to the team, it has many applications — such as in MRI scanners in hospital. Instead of having to lie claustrophobically close to the magnetic coils needed to create MRI images, patients could have the magnetic field sent to them from a separate room via the magic of the wormhole. Three-dimensional image of the magnetic wormhole. On the right is a small magnet, and you can see how its magnetic field lines exit the other side of the wormhole. From a magnetic point of view, the wormhole is undetectable, so the magnetic field lines seem to disappear before reappearing at the let.
This, in turn, has led to new insights into the nature of wormholes, and whether they can be traversed. Until now, the only known way to traverse a wormhole was to stop the EinsteinRosen bridge collapsing using the negative energy of exotic matter. The resulting antigravitational effect then stops the Einstein-Rosen bridge from collapsing, therefore making the wormhole traversable. But, perhaps unsurprisingly, there are some major problems to overcome. This refers to a strange quantum connection that can exist between two objects, so that anything done to one affects the other instantly — no matter how far apart they are.
Like negative energy, the bizarre phenomenon of quantum entanglement really exists. Yet while subatomic particles can be entangled relatively easily in the lab, no one has any idea how to do the same with black holes. According to Jafferis, calculations based on the wormhole types studied so far suggest that using them would actually be slower than simply travelling directly through space.
He admits, though, that the details have yet to be fully worked out. So, it seems that science fact is still running a little behind science fiction. The laws of nature seem to insist that wormholes can either perform amazing feats but collapse in an instant, or be traversable but useless.
Yet time and again, nature has sprung big surprises on theorists. The mere possibility of black holes was disputed for decades, and Einstein himself refused to believe in quantum entanglement. Could it be that somewhere in the Universe lie natural wormholes performing their miracles? The possibility of observing a real-life wormhole is now the focus of research by theorists using a mix of mathematics and computer models.
The challenge is spotting the difference between normal. In future, could we travel to black holes to capture samples of Hawking radiation to help improve our understanding of wormholes? Scientists can study the shadow that a black hole casts on its hot, bright accretion disc. Certain shapes of shadow may reveal that the black hole is, in fact, a wormhole. Yet direct interaction between two black holes comes with a catch: But could it still allow faster-than-light travel?
Gravity, space and time are all intimately linked, and that messes with the very notion of. According to Rajibul Shaikh, a gravity theorist at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India, the answer may lie in subtle differences in the way they affect their surroundings — and in particular the behaviour of light.
The intense gravity of black holes creates incredibly hot, bright accretion discs around them, formed of matter spiralling down to its doom. The otherwise invisible hosts of these discs then reveal their presence as a pitch-black shadow cast on them.
According to Shaikh, the telltale signs of a wormhole come from the gravitational effect of its throat on the resulting shadow. Known as the Event Horizon Telescope EHT , it consists of a global network of radio antennas able to make studies of black holes and wormholes. It could just be that, half a century after it made its debut on movie screens, the space-time wormhole is about to become more than just science fiction.
Robert Mathews is visiting professor in science at Aston University, Birmingham. Outside of free call packages call charges from mobile phones will cost between 3p and 55p per minute.
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Please allow up to 21 days for delivery. The CEOs of those companies that have adopted the policy — so far low in number but high. But what is the evidence? Given we have laboured quite literally under pay secrecy for so long, what would such a dramatic shift do to our minds?
Despite its longevity, there have been some experiments suggesting that pay secrecy may be the worst possible policy we could have in the workplace, for both employers and employees. In one study by Elena Belogolovsky at Cornell University and Peter Bamberger at Tel Aviv University, participants were divided into groups of four and asked to perform a task on a computer.
After each round, one set of groups saw a bar chart on the screen showing only the amount they as an individual would be paid for their performance, and they were forbidden from discussing their remuneration with others in their group over the monitored email system — mimicking pay secrecy conditions.
Those in the second set of groups, working under pay transparency conditions, also saw a second bar chart showing their reward relative to other participants, and were told their email communications had no restrictions.
After three rounds, the researchers found that those in. Further studies by Belogolovsky and Bamberger found that employees collaborate more effectively under transparent conditions, as they are better at assessing the best colleague to approach for advice, based on knowledge of their salaries. But what happens in a real workplace? Here, the case for transparency grows more opaque. As a result, productivity improved by 6. But when David Card, professor of economics at the University of California, performed an experiment on other staff at his university, the results were not so positive.
Unsurprisingly, he found that workers who were paid below the median in their department felt less satisfied in their job and intended to look for another. But those who were paid above the median did not report any significant improvement in job satisfaction or shifts in their intention to move. Joel Gascoigne, CEO of t he social media management platform Buffer, believes the incentives for pay transparency are far greater. But we found that all of these concerns were unfounded and hypothetical, and that the massive benefits far outweighed challenges — there was an immediate growth in the level of trust among team members, and the overall sentiment was very positive.
Knowing how much everyone else was making, knowing the formula used and seeing it was fair was comforting for people. There were some fears that people had around what may happen once their salary is public for the world to see and know.
But when it comes to public transparency, we now allow team members to opt out, for example, if there are personal safety concerns. At Bufer, which develops and sells social media tools, a policy of complete pay transparency has been introduced.
However, when you take a long-term mindset, it is a very easy decision to put in the effort. It breeds trust by removing any ability to use control of data to hold power, and by opening up all the information for a nyone to question.
It enables innovation by ensuring that the whole team has all t he information at their disposal to make key decisions — usually only top level executives have all the cards. It leads to fairness a nd greater justice by inviting any team member and the greater public to question or call us out on our compensation system. It has to lead to something more. Asked if pay transparency is, psychologically speaking, a good thing, he heaves a big sigh.
If they have that kind of culture, I think it could work. Neither a transparent pay policy where employees can compare salaries nor pay secrecy is a solution for an unfair system.
The question of who gets paid what in relation to whom brings up extremely complex feelings, she says: This might sound like a counter-intuitive approach — but that is why it is so important to reflect on it, Vesey explains. At a psychological level, there is always a consequence of sharing information that is irrational as well as rational, and that balances the assumption that the impact is always positive.
Because although debate around transparency and the gender pay gap might appear to be economic, it is also profoundly psychological; it is about being and feeling valued. If you have a notable success in the middle of the year, start the discussion soon afterwards.
Even if the pay cycle means the rise cannot happen for some time, you will have seeded the conversation at a moment when your manager is feeling positively inclined towards you.
Be prepared to talk about the impact you have, rather than effort alone, as this is what makes your case for a rise compelling. Go in calmly and projecting that you believe you are adding value. Next, ask what specific actions you can take that will make you more likely to be given a pay rise in future.
Some companies have little room for pay rises, but more room to negotiate on annual leave, flexible hours or working from home. If your efforts to get a rise are unsuccessful, do not give up without first searching for alternative sources of value. Please pay Immediate Media Co Bristol Ltd debits from the account detailed in this instruction subject to the safeguards assured by the Direct Debit Guarantee.
I was born loving animals. It was wartime, we had little money and my father was off fighting, so Africa was a long way away. We had just enough money for a secretarial course, so I got a job in London as a secretary. When I was 23, I was invited to visit a schoolfriend in Kenya, so I gave that job up, moved back home and worked as a waitress in Bournemouth to save money for the sea voyage. Somebody suggested I see him if I was interested in animals. He needed a secretary.
So that boring old course led me to a job with him. What do you think has been your greatest discovery relating to chimpanzees? I mean, the discovery that led to press coverage in National Geographic magazine was chimpanzees using and making tools, at the Gombe National Park in Tanzania. The chimps used grass stems to fish for termites, and. This was in , and at that time, it was thought that only humans used and made tools. One really special memory was the first chimp to lose his fear — David Greybeard.
He showed me tool use and finally allowed me to follow him in the Gombe forest. I was crawling after him through thick bushes and brambles, and there he was looking back as though he was waiting for me.
There was a ripe, red palm nut on the ground. I held him and held the nut out on my hand. In that moment, I knew that he 2. You became close to the chimpanzees you studied. Is this something you felt was necessary to understand the animals? And with them not minding me being there, watching them, that was the key. Yes, it was necessary. David Greybeard helped me in a way.
Usually, when I arrived, the other chimps would be ready to run. Is there anything that, with hindsight, you would have done diferently? I made mistakes, but I learned from them. Back then, nobody had done this before.
I think I was rather like an anthropologist, meeting an uncontacted tribe, giving them gifts.
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