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Back in , the Great Southern Lumber Company bought , acres square miles of virgin pine forest, built the world's largest sawmill, and founded the town of Bogalusa to serve it. They also ran the government. The mill's general manager was the mayor and the police department took their orders from the company. In addition to the cops, Great Southern maintained a private armed security force to maintain "labor discipline.
Company gunmen and the SPLL assaulted union members, evicted them from company housing, burned private homes, kidnapped, and tortured organizers. Finally, to suppress the union and end interracial cooperation, they formed an armed posse of more than men, attacked the union hall, and shot to death four union leaders. In the late s, the last stands of virgin timber fell to the saws and the huge mill was torn down, it's scrap metal sold to Japan for use in their war of conquest against China.
But Bogalusa survived because the logged-over acres had been replanted with fast-growing yellow pine which sustained paper-products and chemical plants built on the old mill site. By the s, Bogalusa has evolved into a new kind of company town. Three big factories in the heart of town are owned by Crown-Zellerbach CZ , one of the largest corporations in the nation today they are part of the Georgia-Pacific conglomerate. Economically and culturally, Washington Parish is similar to adjacent Pike County Mississippi McComb , and the Pearl River region on both sides of the state border is often referred to as "Klan Nation.
There are no Black cops, firemen, or public officials. In the CZ plants there are "white" jobs and "Colored" jobs. Blacks cannot be hired or promoted into "white" jobs, and whites will not demean themselves by doing "Colored" work. The facilities in CZ plants are segregated, toilets, time clocks, lockers, even the pay-windows. Afro-Americans are served food in the cafeteria, but only after whites, and then they have to eat the food in a separate wooden shack.
While CZ will only contract with whites to cut the timber that forms the raw material for their plants, the actual cutting and hauling labor is done by Black subcontractors who pay a commission on each load to the white man who holds the prime contract with CZ. A court ruled the purge unconstitutional in both purpose and effect, but that did not restore Black voting rights.
The rising tide of Freedom Movement activity in the early s inspires Black workers to begin challenging job discrimination and segregation in the CZ plants. Reed Hunt, Chairman of Crown-Zellerbach, responds that the company has no inclination to " alter the accepted pattern of race relations in the community.
In they end segregation in the company cafeteria, allowing Blacks to actually eat in the same room with whites. White workers are furious. They boycott the facility and force it to close. When the shower-room is integrated, whites refuse to take showers. During this period in the early '60s, CZ carries out a mechanization program in its Bogalusa plants.
Hundreds of white and Black workers are laid off. A joint seven-month strike by both the white and Black union locals is unable to halt the lay-offs. By , some jobs have been eliminated and the workforce cut to white, Afro-American. Membership in the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan increases, as does their influence with the white population.
When news reports announce that President Kennedy has been assassinated in Dallas, white patrons in the local bank burst into spontaneous applause. In January, , the KKK stages multiple cross burnings around the parish.
On May 30, some Klansmen, half in white hoods and robes, stage a Klan rally in Bogalusa. The wearing of hoods to conceal identity violates both Bogalusa's anti-masking ordinance and Louisiana's anti-Klan laws, but city officials make no effort to enforce those laws or halt the "Klonklave.
In an attempt to head off a social explosion, Bogalusa mayor Jesse Cutrer forms a 21 member biracial committee that includes some of the old-guard Black leaders from the BVCL. The BVCL leaders ask them to hold off and give the biracial committee a chance. They believe they can use the threat of CORE protests to extract concessions from the white power-structure.
They'll do almost anything to keep CORE out. They agree to delay activity in Bogalusa until the end of The BVCL strategy fails. The Klan rally in May reveals a membership of at least By some estimates more than CZ employees are in the Klan, as are many business owners, police officers and firemen.
Robert Rester, the City Attorney, is the Exalted Cyclops of the local Klavern which also includes a number of other city and parish officials. Klan harassment and threats drive a white family suspected of socializing with Blacks from town, a white Tulane student who participated in the New Orleans sit-ins is brutally assaulted, a white CZ worker is kidnapped and whipped with leather belts for the "crime" of playing folk music with Blacks in his private home.
When the Bogalusa Daily News editorializes against the Klan, crosses are burned in front of the editor's home and office. The editor, Lou Major, begins carrying a pistol because of death threats. Terrified of KKK violence and economic boycotts, business owners are unwilling to end segregation as required by the Civil Rights Act of At the end of , Bogalusa is still as segregated as it was in the s.
As year ends, a small committee of racial moderates seek assistance from the Federal Community Relations Service CRS which was established by the Civil Rights Act to help communities ease racial tensions. They invite former Arkansas Congressman Brooks Hays, now a CRS official, to address an invitation-only, interracial dinner at a prominent white church. The Klan mobilizes to stop this "race-mixing.
Warned it will be bombed, the church withdraws use of its facility. The meeting never occurs. CORE's moratorium on Bogalusa activity expires at the end Some businesses obey the law and serve them, but many others refuse. Frustrated at the lack of progress and the failure of the "threaten-them-with-CORE" strategy, BVCL members oust the old-guard leadership at a tumultuous meeting in the union hall of the Black local. Young, union leader and WWII vet, is elected president.
Crown-Zellerbach worker Robert Hicks is chosen vice-president and Gayle Jenkins, a hospital food-service worker, becomes Secretary. On the night of February 1st, they form a lynch gang to get the two white activists.
Police Chief Claxton Knight refuses to provide protection: He warns the two CORE workers to get out of town for their own safety and offers an escort if they agree to permanently leave Bogalusa. He summons help from neighbors, and fifteen armed men arrive to defend against the KKK. The Klan raid is called off. A day and a half later, on February 3rd, Klansmen in cars chase Yates and Miller as they leave the union hall.
Miller manages to reach Andrey's, a Black-owned cafe, but the gang surrounds Yates. They beat and kick him until a group of Black men force them back long enough for Yates to reach the cafe. More and more Klansmen gather outside the cafe, chatting amicably with the cops.
When darkness falls, the police withdraw and all the phones in the neighborhood suddenly go dead. They are heckled and abused by whites, and often physically assaulted by Klansmen who the cops treat as honored civic benefactors. To a degree, the presence of news media and Justice Department observers limits the intensity of the violence, but each protest and sit-in is an ordeal of raw courage for the young girls and boys who defy the Klan day after day in the downtown business district.
Their bravery inspires the Black community. Behind the protection of this patriotic cover, they sharply escalate their violence.
Death threats and White Citizens Council economic warfare drive the few white moderates out of the county or into deep hiding. Club-carrying Klansmen force Blacks out of cafes. They hurl bricks and bottles from speeding cars at Black pedestrians regardless of whether or not they are active with the Movement. Cars driven by Afro-Americans are stopped on the street and the occupants beaten.
Blacks are assaulted when they stop for gas or groceries. The violence becomes so intense in "Klantown USA" that the desegregation testing and protests have to be temporarily halted. Neither the police nor the town's political leadership do anything to halt the escalating violence.
They present a strategy of self-defense in cooperation with nonviolent direct action. Led by Charles Sims, it provides armed guards for the mass meetings at the union hall, escorts for CORE cars on rural roads, riflemen to protect activists and the CORE office at night, and roving security patrols to protect the Black neighborhoods after dark. Though heavily outnumbered and outgunned by both Klan and cops, the Deacons are determined that if blood flows in the street some of it will be the blood of white racists.
For all their bravado, Klansmen show little enthusiasm for a stand-up fight with Blacks armed and ready to return fire. The Deacons become a Rorschach test upon whom the media project white fears and fantasies. Press and TV reports distort and sensationalize Deacon goals and activities, lumping them into "kill-whitey" scare-stories about the Nation of Islam and violent urban uprisings in the North such as the Harlem Rebellion and Watts uprising.
They invent nonexistent controversies between the bad "violent tactics" of the Deacons and the good nonviolence of CORE, and they enormously exaggerate disagreements between the Deacons and other Freedom Movement organizations and leaders.
For security reasons, the Deacons sensibly keep their membership numbers and chapter organizations confidential. But that encourages the press to let their imaginations run wild. By June of , the Los Angeles Times is claiming that there are 15, Deacons in 50 chapters across the South, other publications see in the Deacons ominous portents of Black terrorism and guerrilla armies.
FBI field reports on the Deacons total more than 1, pages. Not a single establishment is willing to serve Blacks, not even those that had previously complied during the tests in January. They are terrified of the KKK.
Any business that dares to serve Blacks becomes a target of a Klan "wrecking crew. Then he makes a phone call and within five minutes a mob comes in and forces them to leave. To paraphrase Admiral Mahan, the " Deacons in being " deter the Klan from lethal violence. But for that deterrence to work, the Deacons have to continue to exist and operate as an organized force.
The cops, of course, are eager to bust Deacons on the slightest excuse, and Deacons in jail or tied up in lengthy felony trials can't defend against Klan assassins or lynch mobs. If a Deacon responds with defensive-violence when Klansmen punch and kick a nonviolent protester, it is the Deacon who will be arrested, not the KKK. Day after day and minute by minute, the Deacons make constant tactical decisions over if, when, and how to intervene. As do attacks by Klansmen./p>
Moore is killed instantly. Rogers, on the passenger side, is wounded and permanently injured when the patrol car veers off the road and smashes into a tree. An hour later a police roadblock in Mississippi stops a truck that matches the description given by Rogers.
Ray McElveen, a CZ employee, is arrested. He is also assumed to be a member of the KKK. He is charged with Moore's murder, but never brought to trial. The murder remains "unsolved" to this day. FBI agents later tell reporters that they believe it was a Klan operation. Louisiana Attorney-General Jack Gremillion rules that O'Neal's widow is not eligible for state employee survivor benefits because he had not been killed "while engaged in the direct apprehension of a person. The demonstrators, however, are busted on the slightest excuse.
They handcuffed me with my hands behind my back and took me to the city jail in a city police car, with the Sheriff's car following. When they took me from the car at the jail they started shoving and kicking me. This continued as they brought me into the jail. While I was being booked, in front of the Desk Sargent, I was kicked and knocked down on the floor.
The only time they said anything to me was when I had been knocked down. Get up from there! The suit demands that the Bogalusa cops protect Afro-American protesters from the Klan and white mobs, and stop harassing, beating, and arresting demonstrators exercising their Constitutional right of free speech.
Police complicity in the brutal attack at Cassidy Park on May 19 is presented as a case in point. Hattie Mae Hill 17 is wounded by a rock that strikes her in the head. Since the public hospital won't treat protesters, they try to get her to the MCHR aid station in the Black community but they are attacked by angry whites.
Klansman try to grab the two women in the back seat, they pull Johnson from the car, beating and kicking him. Austin tries to push them back and rescue Johnson. When that fails he fires his pistol in the air. To save Johnson he then shoots one of the white attackers, injuring but not killing him. The police then arrest both Johnson and Austin. The Klansmen, of course, are left free to continue attacking other protesters. He issues an injunction ordering Bogalusa police and Washington Parish sheriffs to protect Black protesters from mob attack and to halt their own " He is somewhere between the white man and the ape.
What the nigger really wants is our white women. Cutrer and other city officials know their support among white voters has dropped to almost nothing and with it their ability to control events.
McKeithen refuses, but offers to help broker a deal. He meets twice with Young and Hicks, offering to set up more negotiations with city officials if they agree to suspend protests for a day "cooling off" period. The BVCL refuses to halt direct action in return for vague promises of more talk. Appalled at the ease with which the KKK roams the streets and assaults CORE demonstrators, he reports that the State Troopers are trying to enforce Judge Christenberry's injunction, but the city police and parish deputies are ignoring it.
As described by Fairclough: On July 16, for example, Doar saw whites attack pickets at the Pine Tree Plaza shopping center; the next day a barber drenched two white pickets with a hose and smeared soap on their arms and shoulders, commenting, " You pickets smell like niggers and need a bath. During the second incident, policemen stood by laughing.
They file a lawsuit to enjoin the KKK and 35 named Klansmen from violence. Another federal lawsuit seeks to desegregate several restaurants, and brutality charges are brought against the parish K9 squad for the beating of Sam Barnes in the parish jail. Overnight, Washington crushed the white supremacist coup in Bogalusa and forced local authorities to uphold the law. In retrospect, what is remarkable was how little was required to destroy the Klan and force local authorities to protect citizens' rights and liberties.
The federal government did nothing more than threaten city officials with modest fines and light jail sentences. See Bogalusa to Baton Rouge march for continuation of the Bogalusa movement. In defiance of pervasive Klan violence and police repression, it is the courage and committment of Bogalusa's Black community that sustains the struggle month after month. Day after day, young people nonviolently endure KKK attacks on downtown streets. Week after week the adults of BVCL keep up the pressure and refuse to give in or settle for token promises.
And throughout, it is the armed protection of the Deacons that keeps the Movement alive by shielding the community, its leaders, and activists from assasinations, bombings, and other forms of lethal terrorism. Labor-led rather than church-based. Louisiana has more industry than the other Deep South states and because of its unique history unions are more common than in states like Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina though, of course, no one would ever equate Louisiana with labor strongholds like Michigan, Massachusetts, or New York.
And because Louisiana segregation laws require separate "white" and "Colored" locals, there is a cadre of experienced Afro-American labor activists in places like Bogalusa even though Black workers in the Crown-Zellerbach plants are heavily outnumbered by whites. Through the union, these Afro-American labor leaders have an organizational base and constituency. They are respected in their community, and the political skills needed to win election to union office can be applied to building and leading a community-based political organization.
In other areas of the South, where Black unions don't exist, local freedom movements are usually based in the churches and most often led by ministers or other members of the middle-class. But in Bogalusa the movement is anchored in the union and led by working-class activists like A. Young, Robert Hicks, and Gayle Jenkins.
While some mass meetings and other Movement activities are held in Bogalusa churches, the union hall is the center of the struggle, it is the main venue for mass meetings and voter registration classes, the assembly site for mass marches, and the rally point protesters retreat to when under Klan attack.
The power-structure and the Ku Klux Klan. The KKK is a terrorist organization dedicated to maintaining white-supremacy through violence, and the threat of violence. Some state and local politicians share the Klan's racist views and are either actually, or in effect, members themselves. Others adopt the Klan's rhetoric out of political expediency or from threat of economic or violent retaliation. Large employers like Crown-Zellerbach fear destructive sabotage of their expensive manufacturing equipment if they themselves become a target of the Klan's wrath, and at times they find the KKK useful in keeping the labor force divided against itself, white versus Black.
While the federal government has little reason to fear KKK violence directed at themselves, politicians and bureaucrats in Washington do carefully count the cost to their careers and agendas if they cross powerful southern Senators or alienate white voters. Klan terror is based on ambush, mob violence, and attacks on those who cannot fight back.
But despite their posturing and fiery rhetoric, few Klansmen are willing to risk their own skins when their victims are armed, organized, and willing to return fire. Once the Deacons establish themselves, Klan caravans and night-riders no longer raid the Afro-American community and cross-burnings in Black neighborhoods dwindle away.
Nor are Klansmen willing to face serious jail time. So long as local law enforcement gives them effective immunity from arrest and prosecution they are eager to brutalize nonviolent protesters. So long as they are confident that local white juries won't convict them if they're caught, they feel free to bushwhack Blacks. But when the federal government finally musters the political courage to risk electoral fallout and confront both the Klan and local cops, overt Klan violence is driven underground and largely suppressed.
See Clarence Triggs Murdered for continuation. For more information on the Bogalusa Civil Rights Movement: Passage of the Civil Rights Act of lays the legal foundation for finally dismantling the overt, state-enforced system of Jim Crow social segregation.
But laws passed in Washington mean little until they are implemented on the ground by courageous social pioneers. In some places change comes peacefully, in others such as Bogalusa Louisiana and Grenada Mississippi white resistance is fierce and the struggle is brutal. So despite passage of these landmark laws, campaigns to end segregation, register voters, elect Blacks to office, and achieve a share of political power continue for years. Voting rights, and the slow but steady dismantling of segregation, begin to bring some profound changes to social and legal aspects of the "southern way of life," but by it is clear that those landmark victories are having little effect on the grinding poverty and ruthless exploitation endured by nonwhites and poor whites in both the South and North.
Nationwide, Freedom Movement activists begin to seek ways of addressing systems of economic injustice that are ultimately rooted in the enormous inequalities of political and economic power between rich and poor, and white and Black. In the South, efforts to create new kinds of labor unions, welfare and food rights groups, poor peoples' organizations, effective War on Poverty programs, and a variety of farm, commercial, employment, housing, and purchasing cooperatives are all undertaken, as are SNCC and SCEF-supported efforts to organize poor southern whites.
But successes are few. Simultaneous with the voting rights battles of that year are efforts to obtain adequate food for the rural poor, organize the Mississippi Freedom Labor Union , form the Poor Peoples Corporation in Mississippi, and unionize a brick factory in Marshall County. From onwards, coperatives of many kinds are proposed and some are successfully organized.
King's support of the Memphis Garbage Workers Strike in continue the effort to find some effective way of winning justice and addressing the political roots of poverty in the South. But the deck is stacked against achieving significant economic reform. Nonviolent protest tactics such as sit-ins, freedom rides, mass marches and merchant boycotts proved effective against segregation and denial of voting rights, but they are harder to apply and less successful against economic injustice.
Strikes require a strong union supported by the majority of employees, but state anti-union "right to work" laws, biased anti-union courts, pro-business NLRB procedures and rulings, and internal union weaknesses all cripple labor organizing. Racism pits white and Black workers against each other and the Jim Crow history of many unions makes bridging racial divides difficult. Despite its stirring "War on Poverty" rhetoric, the federal government is unwilling to encourage or even allow reforms that significantly alter the existing relations of economic power between white and Black, rich and poor.
Department of Agriculture collusion in excluding Afro-American from farm programs and maintaining the ASCS county committees as all-white bastions of economic power are clear examples of Washington's political commitment to established power-structures.
And War on Poverty programs themselves often prove divisive as people, many of whom were former allies, scramble and compete for grants and positions. From state to county to town, the white power-structure views any effort to alter the economic status-quo as "Communist subversion" which they ferociously suppress.
In this they are abetted by local media, civic organizations, and many religious leaders who spread and promote a culture of anti-Communist fear and hysteria. The White Citizens Council is well organized and ever vigilant, ruthlessly wielding economic power to counter and destroy any attempt to organize unions, form cooperatives, enact reform legislation, or elect Blacks to office. Moreover, addressing economic issues requires enormous long-term patience, steadfast energy, and new tactics, techniques, and organizing concepts; but by , burn-out and exhaustion have become significant problems among local community leaders and Movement activists who have been enduring deadly danger, jail, beatings, economic hardship, and intense pressure for years.
Many of the young organizers who dropped out of college in the early '60s are now returning to school, and while their replacements are equally committed to the struggle, they are far less experienced. At the same time, divisive and debilitating internal disputes over issues of race, class, nonviolence, and ultimate strategic goals are weakening the cohesive bonds of unity and solidarity that hold the Movement together. In the rural South, the situation is grim for those at the bottom of the economic pyramid.
Herbicides are eliminating the need for hand "chopping" of weeds, and machines can now pick cotton cheaper and quicker. And cotton itself is being replaced by less labor-intensive alternatives such as livestock chickens, cattle, catfish , row-crops like corn and soy, and timber for pulp mills.
Local power-structures are eagerly seeking northern investment, and their chief selling point is a low-wage, non-union business environment. They are determined to prevent any form of union organizing or campaigns for economic reform. And when economic issues are on the table, some members of the Black elite who supported struggles against Jim Crow and for voting rights find themselves torn between community solidarity and their personal financial interests.
Nationally, some leaders of the Democratic Party who supported the struggle for Black civil rights in the South are unsympathetic, or actively opposed, to campaigns around issues of economic justice and efforts to empower the "have-nots" of American society.
Economics, Class, and Race. Pickers are usually paid by the pound, the scales are often crooked, and in many cases earnings are not paid in money but rather as deductions from debt owed to a plantation store where the books are secret and the amount owed is whatever the overseer says it is.
Many are dispossessed sharecroppers now forced to eke out what little they can as day laborers. The idea of a union is discussed, if they cannot improve their lives individually, perhaps working together they can survive.
But no formal action is taken. They decide they need a union and bring the idea to the county mass meeting where it is enthusiastically accepted by all.
The first 50 members sign up, union officers are elected, and they begin planning a strike. They make the decisions, write the materials, organize new members, run the meetings, and keep the books. Why make your child work for low wages when you all of your life have been working for nothing?
Why buy the white man steak when you can't hardly eat neckbones? As cheap as chicken is you can't eat it but once a week on Sunday. Wake up and think. We as Negroes should want to be equal and get high wages. For over two hundred years we have been working for nothing. Please join the union because if you are not in a union you just aren't anywhere. In Sunflower County, cotton workers in Indianola strike.
Union secretary is Mrs. The lady I used to work for would give me dinner and let me off early. I used to do chopping later in the day and I would make three dollars a day. But after James Meredith at 'Ole Miss in l, she let me off. The last times I worked for her she wouldn't even give me dinner. I expect the boss man's going to come 'round here to ask me to leave any time now. Laborers on the A. When the owner refuses, they go on strike.
The Sheriff sends a prison work-gang to evict them from their rundown homes which are owned by the plantation, dumping all of their belongings out on the highway. Other white plantation owners try to force their Black tenants to scab for Andrews. When that fails, he imports poor whites from Arkansas to maintain and harvest his cotton.
By June, are on strike in the Delta. County welfare authorities cut off the free federal commodity food that people rely on to feed their children. A local court issues an injunction limiting pickets to no more than four. The isolated strikers are shot at, sprayed with ammonia, and have to dodge cars that try to run them down. Local law enforcement ignores their complaints. Strike supporters are arrested on trumped up charges.
The federal government proves at best indifferent, and in the case of the Department of Agriculture actively hostile, to the strikers and the plight of Blacks in general. Friends of SNCC chapters in the north send food, clothing, and small amounts of money. The Delta Ministry provides tents and food to house evicted families on a Black-owned farm in Tribbet not far from Greenville.
They call it "Strike City" and it is sustained with the aid of Delta Ministry activists. By cotton-picking time, close to a thousand workers are on strike in six Delta counties. But that is only a fraction of the total number of Black agriculture workers in the area.
Despite their courage and determination, the strikers are unable to affect the owners' ability to tend and harvest their crop. Some planters increase wages for their nonstriking tractor drivers by a dollar or so a day, but the strikers fail to win any concessions and they are blacklisted from future work for white employers.
As the hard times of Fall and Winter close in, some strikers join the mass migration of dispossessed Blacks from rural to urban areas, while others hold out as best they can in Strike City and other Delta communities. It's a small county, much of it bog and alligator-infested swampland. In , the total population is just 3, down from 5, in Some students from adjacent Sharkey County take some too.
On Friday, January 29, a few of the students wear them to school. We just wanted to wear the pins, that's all, " said one of them later. Eleven years after Brown v Board of Education , the small Issaquena school system is still totally segregated into separate and unequal white and Colored schools. Jordan, the Black principle of the all-Black Henry Weathers High School is appointed by the all-white county school board. He has no job tenure, there is no teachers union, and he can be fired at will.
He orders the students to stop wearing the SNCC pins. Over the weekend, the students talk among themselves, " We got together with a lot of other kids and we all decided to wear the SNCC pins on the next school day. They pass out additional pins to others in the hallway.
School administrators later allege that some of them, "Accosted other students by pinning the buttons on them even though they did not ask for one. At least refuse. They are summoned to the principal's office, their names are noted down, and they are required to wait in the hall while Jordan calls the white Superintendent. After more than an hour, the students are again told to remove the pins and return to class. Most of them continue to wear their buttons.
Under orders from Jordan, teachers refuse to let them into the classrooms. The entire student body is called to assembly. While Jordan confers with the teachers and white authorities, the students waiting in the gym talk among themselves. We decided that we wanted to ask him some questions. We asked him, how would he feel if his own daughter was forced to bend over, touch her toes, and get whipped on the backside like we do. And we asked him, how come there was no Colored people on the school board even though 70 per cent of the county is Colored people?
And we asked him, was he registered to vote? He orders them to stop asking questions and return to class. But by now the school day is almost over and everyone goes home. The next day, Tuesday, February 2nd: So many kids came to school wearing SNCC pins that we couldn't count them all. The principal began the day by calling a general assembly. He said that he would listen to no more questions. Then he read from a book a rule saying that, "Any student who disrupts school can be suspended or expelled by the principal.
Any student who wore a pin the next day would be suspended, and any student who wore a SNCC pin on Thursday, said the principal, would be expelled and not allowed to go to school anywhere in Mississippi. Few of those wearing freedom buttons take them off. On Wednesday, more than of the 1, students wear pins, as do some of the children in the elementary school. And over in adjacent Sharkey County, some high school students do the same.
Again Principal Jordan calls an assembly. To quell this spontaneous defiance of the "southern way of life" where "Colored folk" are submissive, docile and contented with their lot, he suspends the students whose names were taken down on Monday and threatens the same for anyone else who continues to defy the edict against freedom buttons. He tells them they can only return to school if they sign a written promise not to participate in any kind of civil rights activity including wearing SNCC pins.
Close to pin-wearing students who have not yet been suspended walk out of school in solidarity with those who have been expelled. Parents and others from the community, many of them MFDP members, meet in the evening. Led by MFDP Delegate Unita Blackwell, they agree that the issue is more fundamental than the right of their children to freely wear whatever pins they want. They call for a school boycott to support the students. On Thursday, close to elementary school children are kept home by parents supporting the boycott.
The majority of the 1, students at Weathers High School refuse to attend class. A parents committee tries to meet with the all-white school board to discuss the situation. The school board refuses to sit in the same room with them. The boycott spreads into Sharkey County. By the next week, more than 1, students in the two counties are on strike.
With national media attention focused on Selma and Bogalusa the boycott is ignored by the press. Parents and students begin organizing Freedom Schools in local churches and homes. Older students teach the younger ones. Freedom Schools elsewhere in the state send books, materials, and expressions of support.
The teachers in high school never did try to teach us anything. They don't care about us or about Freedom.
All we can do in this county is chop cotton anyhow. We don't need a diploma to chop cotton. We want our Freedom! This is a revolutionary concept in education. Students can give themselves a better education than the local schools can about what democracy is, what freedom means and how people work together to bring about changes in the society.
These are the most relevant things to their lives. They understand, and share, the students' frustration with the strictly limited, racially-biased curriculum they are forced to teach. But the white school board can fire them at will, and they have to toe the line or lose their jobs.
As the boycott continues, a total of high school students are suspended for the remainder of the year. Teachers suspected of supporting the students are informed that their work contracts won't be renewed in the Fall. In early March the NAACP petitions the school board to re-admit the suspended students and allow them to wear civil rights pins. There is no response. On April 1st, , Blackwell v Issaquena County Board of Education is filed in federal district court demanding re-admission of the suspended students, free speech rights, and the desegregation of the Issaquena County school system.
The case is heard by Judge William Harold Cox, a white native of Mississippi and an outspoken segregationist. A former 'Ole Miss college roommate of the racist Senator James Eastland who chairs the powerful Senate Judiciary Committee, he had been appointed to the federal bench in by President Kennedy as part of a back room deal. In a voter registration case, Cox referred to Blacks as " a bunch of chimpanzees, " and he told Justice Department attorney John Doar that he was, " not interested in whether the registrar is going to give a registration test to a bunch of niggers on a voter drive.
Cox hears the case in May. Under this kind of "Catch" rationale, protesting a denial of freedom then becomes legal justification for denying that freedom. On appeal, Cox's ruling is upheld by the federal 5th Circuit Court the following year. However, eleven years after Brown v Board of Education and one year after passage of the Civil Rights Act of , Cox has no legal choice but to order Issaquena County to begin slowly desegregating their school system. But under Cox's supervision, the school board is permitted to drag out the process for another five years until In the Fall of , the "no movement activity" promise is not enforced and most students return to class.
The popular Freedom Schools are continued every summer until the schools are finally desegregated. For more information on the Freedom Movement in Issaquena County: After accepting the Nobel Prize in December of , Dr. King meets with President Johnson in the White House.
The President informs King that voting rights are not on his agenda for now. Johnson's priority is his "Great Society," War on Poverty legislation. And, though he doesn't mention it to King, the war in Vietnam he is about to greatly expand.
LBJ assures King that he'll get around to Black voting rights someday, but not in I'm going to do it eventually, but I can't get a voting rights bill through in this session of Congress.
King and the Freedom Movement are unwilling to wait for Johnson's " eventually. When Johnson is inaugurated on January 20, his speech makes no mention of the hundreds of Americans in Alabama who are being arrested and brutalized for trying to register to vote.
But the Black citizens of Selma and the surrounding rural counties refuse to back down. Public pressure on the White House to do something intensifies. Johnson orders the Justice Department to draft a legislative strategy for ensuring Black voting rights. Except for prohibiting certain kinds of discriminatory restrictions, the U. Constitution is silent on voter qualifications and procedures. Historically, determining who can vote, and how voters are registered, has been left to the states.
Attorney General Katzenbach is reluctant to encroach on these traditional states rights, he sees it as unknown legal territory frought with legal and political risks. He and his staff toss around the idea of some kind of new constitutional amendment, perhaps something like the 19th Amendment granting woman suffrage. But civil rights activists adamantly oppose that idea as a stalling tactic.
The Constitution already guarantees full citizenship to non-whites including the right to vote, the problem is enforcing those rights in the face of procedures and barriers enacted by the states. A new national voting law is needed, one that will enable and require the federal government to protect the voting rights of racial minorities. And if an amendment is eventually ratified, Congress will then have to enact new legislation a bill to implement it and that requires overcoming yet another filibuster.
The days and weeks of February pass by with little legislative progress. By the end of the month, more than 4, people have been arrested in Alabama, many have been fired or evicted from their homes, others have endured brutal police violence, and Jimmie Lee Jackson has been murdered.
And no more than a handful of Blacks have actually been registered. In Washington, public and Congressional pressure to do something continues to intensify. Adding to that pressure is international condemnation, Soviet propaganda, and the realities of Cold War geopolitics. As political pressure mounts, the Justice Department grudgingly begins to consider what role if any the national government might play in securing voting rights for Blacks and other racial minorities faced with state voting barriers.
On " Bloody Sunday ," March 7th, hundreds of nonviolent marchers are savagely attacked by police and civilian "possemen" on the Edmund Pettus bridge in Selma. News coverage of this brutal assault on peaceful protesters is broadcast world-wide. In the words of many, " All hell breaks loose. Katzenbach huddles with Justice Department lawyers.
Reluctantly, they shelve the Constitutional amendment plan and turn to drafting a voting-rights bill. Civil rights leaders are pleased that the administration is now willing to consider legislation rather than some chimerical constitutional amendment but there still remains an underlying difference in approach.
To Freedom Movement activists voting is a fundamental right. All citizens should have the right to participate in the democratic political process regardless of their economic status, education level, or any other factor. Given the long and brutal history of southern states systematically denying the vote to nonwhites, simple justice requires that the federal government finally implement the 14th and 15th Amendments by enacting legislation to grant all citizens the right to vote wholesale.
But the Johnson administration, and the Washington power-elite in general, accept the traditional premise that states have the right to establish qualifications which restrict who is allowed to vote.
Only now are they reluctantly being driven to the conclusion that some new legislation must be enacted to require that those qualifications no longer be explicitly race-based or applied in a race-biased manner. There is simply no way they will consider any "register-everyone" type bill. The inevitable southern filibuster cannot be overcome without substantial Republican support. Soon Katzenbach, Justice Department lawyers, Republican and Democrat Senate leaders, Senate staff, and civil rights leaders are all involved in negotiating a bipartisan voting bill that can effectively end racial voting barriers yet still gain enough Republican support to defeat a southern filibuster.
Though the protests have focused on Black voting rights, Freedom Movement leaders insist that the bill address all forms of vote-related racial bias. Latinos trying to register or vote in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and parts of California have long faced discriminatory procedures, intimidation, and economic retaliation; as have Native Americans throughout the West, portions of the Northeast, and Alaska.
Feeling the heat both domestically and internationally, LBJ pushes them to move fast, the voting rights issue is diverting attention from his "Great Society" legislation and undermining his Vietnam strategy. He now wants a bill and he wants it now. Katzenbach is ordered to come up with something the President can present to Congress on the weekend of March , just days away.
By Friday the 12th, the negotiators have agreed that the bill must include some provision for suspending the so-called " literacy tests " and also federal authority to register voters in counties that continue to systematically deny voting rights. But there is no agreement on the formulas or thresholds that would trigger such "drastic" action. By an odd coincidence, all the formulas proposed by Johnson administration officials are drafted in such a way that none of them will apply to conditions in Texas where Blacks, Latinos and Indians all face voting rights discrimination.
Homes of voting rights activists are shot into and bombed. Memories are still fresh of Black leaders assassinated for advocating the vote.
Churches and offices used in registration drives are burned. Police intimidation, retaliation, and political suppression are flagrant. Voting applicants and civil rights workers are subject to arrest on trumped up charges, peaceful voter registration rallies and nonviolent marches are broken up with clubs, gas, and mass arrests. A general clause outlawing threats and intimidation is added to the draft bill.
But "Law and order" Republicans and Democrats adamantly oppose any kind of specific restriction on police actions, or any sort of oversight of local police behavior on the part of Washington. In its present form this bill will not protect the citizens of Danville, Virginia, who must live in constant fear of a police state.
It will not protect the hundreds and thousands of people that have been arrested on trumped charges. Blacks in the South who attempt to register, cast ballots, or participate in Democratic Party activities are fired from their jobs or evicted from their rented shacks.
Banks foreclose on mortgages and suppliers boycott Black businesses. Similar tactics are used against Latinos in the Southwest. But pro-business Republicans and Democrats oppose legislation that might grant any arm of government authority to "intrude" on the "business decisions" of private enterprise or to investigate or regulate the motivations behind individual business actions.
A bill that contains any such restrictions on "free enterprise" cannot possibly pass. Economic barriers to voting are not included in the draft bill.
With specific restrictions on police conduct and economic retaliation off the table, poll taxes emerge as the main bone of contention. These taxes are used to prevent poor Blacks and poor whites from voting.
These taxes are often cumulative and have to be paid even in years when there are no elections. That might not sound like a lot of money, but for impoverished Blacks and whites too with hungry children and only seasonal employment, it forces an economic choice between voting and the necessities of life. And many sharecroppers and laborers precariously exist entirely outside of the cash economy.
They "buy" their necessities "on account" at over-priced plantation or company stores, and their "pay" is simply a bookkeeping notation that reduces their debt to the store. They see little or no cash at all. In , the 24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes in elections for federal offices, but all southern states except Maryland still retain poll taxes for state and local elections. Vermont is the only non-southern state with a poll tax. Senator Ted Kennedy proposes an amendment to eliminate poll taxes in all elections and that is added to the draft.
In their view, a state's right to levy taxes must be held sacrosanct from federal "meddling. The enormous disparities between "rich" and "poor" school district funding, for example? There is also an unspoken partisan subtext to the poll tax debate. Braddock of Arlington Virginia. His family invites friends to join them at 3 p. Friday for a graveside service at Roselawn Cemetery. Afterward, they will receive visitors at 4 p.
A memorial celebration of his life service will be held at 5 p. Friday at the church with Dr. Jackson of Pensacola, Florida, officiating, assisted by the Rev. Scott Sharp of Decatur, Mississippi, and Lt. Honorary pallbearers are Dennis Altice. Roselawn Funeral Home is assisting the family. Memorial services 10 a. Interment Arlington National Cemetery.
Memorials Denver Hospice or Susan G. Saturday, November 5, Anyone is invited to speak. A meal will be prepared for all after the service. Private burial to follow. Callaway was born June 23, in Alexandria, Virginia.
Callaway worked for Shell Oil for the past twenty-nine years, where he was on the Board of Directors for the sulphur industry the last fourteen years and was President for the Sulphur Institute. Survivors include his long-time companion, Billie T. Friends are invited to a gathering with the family from 3: A memorial service will be held at 6: The family will receive friends at Altmeyer Funeral Home today from 6 to 7 p. A graveside service will be held at 2 p.
Thursday at Forest Lawn Cemetery. The family requests that memorial donations be made to the American Heart Association. Karen met her future husband Arlie in Walton is survived by her two brothers, two step children, niece, nephew and several grandchildren.
The family will receive friends Thursday February 25, from 6 to 9 p. Funeral services will be held Friday February 26, at 11 a. Published in The Washington Post on Feb. An artist her entire life, she enjoyed traveling the world with her friends and family, capturing the different landscapes and perspectives, but her true passion was the Southwest. Her greatest true loves were her family and her beloved animals.
Cindy was preceded in death by her parents, Sam and Charlotte Carnes. She is survived by three children, Jim Wall, Jr. In lieu of flowers, her family wishes to continue her support of the following charities: An open house will be held on Saturday, August 1, from 2: For those who wish, you may send condolences to the family at www.
The cause of death officially listed as Sepsis, but it was a series of things that led to that. He had gotten a bad flu that was going around, and being Daddy and hating any sort of medical attention it turned into pneumonia that got so bad that he wasn't getting enough oxygen so he had no choice but to go to the hospital.
There was a series of chain events while in the hospital that led to him getting the Sepsis. Caulsen II, 24, son of Harry W. He was born in Washington D. His address here was 4th Street SW. His father is his only survivor.
Pumphrey, Bethesda, Maryland, on Sunday December 4, 7 to 9 p. Services Tuesday, December 6 at 11 a. Taylor Street, Arlington, Virginia, son of Col. Deverall of the home address, and brother of Miss Claudia N. Requiem Mass on Wednesday, April 24, at Myer Cemetery, with Full Military Honors.
In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to the Army Relief Society. Dregne, 22, a Naval aviation cadet who died in an automobile accident near Merridian, Mississippi, Saturday will be held at 3 p. Wednesday in the North Post Chapel, Ft.
Burial will be in Arlington Cemetery. Dregne, son of Col. Dregne of S. An Air Force veteran, he served in Europe before returning to attain a degree in accounting from Southeastern University. He worked as an accountant for various firms in Florida and the District area, including the last 11 years for the Futures Industry Association in Washington. There will be a memorial remembrance at the Quarterdeck, N. He lived in Arlington County. He had spent the past 11 years at the association after working at several accounting firms in Washington.
He also worked for a few years in Florida in the 's. Dye was born in Washington D. After serving in the Air Force, he received a bachelor's degree in accounting from Southeastern University. He enjoyed boating, cooking and golf. His marriage to Susan Dye ended in divorce. Survivors include two daughters, Colleen Duncan and Garland Dye, both of Tampa; two sisters; a brother; and a grandson.
She was the wife of Johnnie "John" W. Britton of Rindge, New Hampshire. Jay was a generous philanthropist, donating her time and money to many organizations throughout the years and was also a breeder of Champion Weimaraner Dogs. Funeral services will be held on Thursday, April 17, , at Calling hours will be held on Wednesday, April 16, , from p.
Condolences and information are available at www memorialfuneralhome. Ellingson, age 61, passed away March 3, Originally from Washington D. He received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering and a master's degree in metallurgy from the Georgia Institute of Technology. After that he served in the Air Force for several years. He was discharged as a captain. He is survived by his wife, Patricia D.
III, and Geoffrey C. Elliott, all at home; and a brother, Robert C. Services will be private. Instead of flowers, the family suggests contributions to the First Church of Christ Scientist, N. Van Buren Street, Wilmington, Delaware Fadely, 63, on Wednesday, August 17, of Arlington, Virginia.
Loving father of Sherri L. Services and interment will be held privately at a later date. Contributions may be made in his name to the charity of your choice. His 40 plus year career in the Space Science division at the U. After retiring from the government in , he continued to work at the Naval Research Lab as a subcontractor for the Praxis Corporation.
In he and his wife, Ellen, retired to Deep Creek Lake, MD, where they had maintained a vacation house since His parents and brother, Harold Geiger Fritz, predeceased him. A celebration of Gil's life will be held on Saturday, September 16 at 11 a.
She is deeply mourned. The world became a more beautiful place when Joan was born on May 29, in Washington, D. Joan had a happy childhood filled with adventure, and her love of adventure continued throughout her life. Joan married her husband, James "Jim" Albert Harrell, on December 28, in Arlington, Virginia, after which they moved to Florida where they lived out their lives with their three children, Sharon, Sheila, and Scott, and eventually, grandson Ian, who was the light of Joan's life.
Joan touched the lives of countless children, and she was often invited to high school and college graduations of children she had taught in kindergarten.
Joan was a world traveler, a music maker and dreamer of dreams, a prissy princess who was always beautifully turned out, and she had great legs to the end. Joan was preceded in death by her husband Jim and her oldest brother Chuck, and is survived by her three grieving children, grandson Ian, two sons-in-law Thomas and Bobby whom she dearly loved, her sister Pat, brothers Bud and Mike, and countless true friends. The angels are so lucky to have her. He is survived by his wife of 49 years, Stephanie; son, Charles Vanessa Gailey; daughter, Clare Gailey; four siblings and four nieces and nephews.
A Lieutenant Colonel US Army, he was devoted to helping veterans, especially the st Airborne; genealogy and maintaining contact with his extended family; and historical archaeology for Fairfax County. One of the greatest of his many acts of service was locating the living relatives of soldiers who died in a plane crash in Australia in WWII. His ashes will be buried at Arlington Cemetery.
Ganoe and Dorothy L. He worked on heating, AC and sheet metal work in the DC area. He was a member of Episcopal Faith and an avid Washington Redskins fan. Surviving are two sons: He is preceded in death by two brothers: Lee Ganoe; John William Ganoe and a sister: Officiating will be Pastor Alanna McGuinn. Gates, son of Margaret C. Services and interment provate. A native of Pittsburgh, Pa. She was a retired Registered Nurse and a member of St. Katharine Drexel Catholic Church. Wilson of Albuquerque, N.
Plunkett of Pittsburgh, Pa. A private memorial service will be held. The family wishes to thank everyone for their kind support. You may express condolences to the family by visiting www. He had lung cancer. Gilbert was a native of Danville, Virginia, and grew up on military bases while his father served in the Army.
In retirement, he had been a league commissioner for the Suburban Friendship League, which provides scheduling services to recreational soccer teams. He previously coached youth soccer teams in Sterling and Herndon. Services will be in March in Arlington National Cemetery.
He was born October 2, , in Arlington, Virginia. He served in the Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. Funeral services on Friday, May 10, at Willingham was born December 21, , in Washington, D. She was a homemaker and was a member of the Church of the Valley in Page County.
All services will be private. Market Street, Harrisonburg, Virginia Hayes, 69, of Huntsvile, Alabama, passed away Wednesday at a local hospital. He continued his studies there and received his Master's Degree and PhD in engineering science.
Jim was known as a "Triple Domer. He retired in April Visitation will be from 6 to 8 p. Monday at Laughlin Service Funeral Home. No services are planned. Dear son of the late John and Miriam Herr.
Survived by many loving friends and family. Published in The Washington Post on Jan. He received Master's Degrees from St. During his twenty-year career in the U. At his retirement ceremony, he was honored as having been selected as a Kentucky Colonel. He was preceded in death by his parents. His knowledge, experience and fair-mindedness earned him the respect of everyone he met.
He was loved by many and shall be forever missed. Hill Memorial Fund, P. Sam Houston with Chaplain Wayne Harris officiating. Kathryn is also survived by her former husband and friend, John H. A memorial service will be held, Monday, November 28, at 11 a. In lieu of flowers contributions may be made in Kathryn's honor to the Special Olympics www. September 14, at Lynchburg General Hospital after a courageous battle with leukemia.
She was the widow of Calvin Wayne Martin. She loved all cats and animals. She was preceded by her brother, Larry Wayne Hodges. Katherine is survived by her children: The family will receive friends on Friday, September 17, from 7: Virginia , The 62 year old Cub Hill resident had undergone heart surgery in July.
He remained a crack shot and often went skeet shooting at a Loch Raven club. He entered the Army after graduation and trained combat engineers at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Hodges had temporary duty assignments in Vietnam, and during the Tet offensive he defended a gate in heavy fighting at Saigon's Tan Son Nhut Airport. He attained the rank of captain. After his discharge, Mr. Two years later he joined AAI in Hunt Valley and ran its mechanical engineering division for nearly a quarter-century.
He had an ability to visualize mechanical systems," said Maurice P. Ranc, a retired AAI vice president and general manager of defense systems. Hodges' duties included work on the running gears of Baltimore's light rail cars and design of the Marines' Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle, which has not reached production.
He was a combat engineer at heart. Hodges envisioned the ton vehicle as traveling at high speeds on water and carrying a Marine platoon.
On land, it operates on tank-like tracks. He was a confident, persuasive person. He had a powerful personality. Hodges was a U. He retired in , but remained a consultant on the assault vehicle until a year ago. Survivors include his wife of 32 years, the former Demaris J. Hodges of Cub Hill; a daughter, Jennifer L. Hodges of Arlington, Virginia; and two grandchildren. Beloved husband of Demaris "Dee" J. Hodges and Gregory S.
Expressions of sympathy may be directed in Mack's. Inquiries - Lemmon Funeral Home, Husband of the late Nancy Hoover.
He is survived by two sons, Patrick M. Beth and Berk C. Memorial service wil be held at St. Interment to follow at Cedar Hill Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Hospice of Charles County.
Hoover was composing room chairman at the Washington Post for years and was transferred to International Typographical Union in Colorado Springs, Colorado, as assistant secretary. He was an avid golfer. Visitation was held Wednesday, November 23, from 4: Hoy student at Carnegie Institute of Technology. Braddock Road, Alexandria, Virginia, where funeral services will be held on Wednesday, January 15, at 10 a.
Interment Columbia Gardens Cemetery. The collision on U. Route 11, a mile west of Radford in Pulaski County, oocurred about Hoy, who was alone in the car, died about 3 a. He was the son of Mr. Hoy of the Arlington address. The son was a rifleman and skydiver.
He had participated in more than jumps as a parachutist and skydiver since taking up the sport last summer. He was a licensed instructor. Besides his parents, he leaves a brother, Robert, 18, a freshman at Carnegie Instutite of Technology in Pittsburgh. Charles was a member of VPI's cadet corps. Services will be held at 10 a. Officiating will be Dr.
Burial will be in Columbia Gardens Cemetery, Arlington. Memorial services will be held Wednesday, 10 a. Donations may be made to the American Cancer Society. Judy was born September 6, , in Washington, D. She was a graduate of James Madison College in She worked as an elementary school teacher for three years in Falls Church, Virginia, and then worked for the U.
She is also survived by several nieces and nephews. A Memorial Service will be held at Visitation will follow the Service at Kyger Funeral Home. A graveside funeral service will be conducted at 2 p. Thursday at Culpepper National Cemetery. Hill and Wood Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements. Kline, 62, of Arlington, Virginia, on May, He is survived by his brother Charles R.
He was preceded in death by his sister, Virginia Camplair. Funeral services will be held Saturday,May 22 at Memorial contributions may be made in his memory to Faith Lutheran Church. Thank you for your inquiry to my sister, Bettie, regarding our brother, George Koenig. What you heard is correct. George passed away in It is hard to believe it has been so long. George remembered his high school years at Wakefield fondly and it is a tribute to you all that you have kept in touch over these years.
George was a lifelong learner. He had many loves - most of all his family and bubble-back Volvos! He enjoyed car rallies, skiing and golf.
He was survived by his parents, who are since deceased, and his two brothers and three sisters, three of whom attended Wakefield. George was a wonderful, devoted brother and we still feel his absence. We appreciate you remembering him. Please let me know you received this as I'm not sure I wrote the email address correctly when I spoke to my sister.
Don Kraft died December 6, in Littleton, Colorado. Don was born February 26, in Washington D. Don only attended Wakefield his senior year. Don retired in and eventually moved to Littleton to be near family. The last three years of his life he fought two types of cancer, finally succumbing late last year. My Mom and Dad moved to their Park Drive residence in when the house was brand new. He transferred to Wakefield for his Senior year for academic reasons — if he were available he could explain the situation better than I can.
My mom and Dad stayed on Park Drive until after all the kids were gone and then moved to the Chatham Arlington Blvd. Don and his wife ended up buying the house from them and he did a lot of much needed work on it — he was always a pretty handy guy and a licensed electrician later on.
He ended up selling it about after living there for about 5 years or so — the RE market was booming back then. Funeral arrangements by Lotz Roanoke Chapel. Baxter Lemmond, died at his home in Bon Air, Virginia, after a brave battle with a lengthy illness on September 30, William Park Lemmond, Jr.
He is also survived by his loved Maluccan Cockatoo, "Hokie. After spending eight years as an investment broker in Richmond, he enrolled in the T. Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond. He then practiced law in Virginia, Key West and St. An extremely avid Virginia Tech fan especially football , he could always be found wearing orange and maroon. He loved to travel and this passion took him to England, his clan's castle in Scotland, northern Europe and the Caribbean.
Huguenot Road, Bon Air, at 2 p. Friends and family will gather at his home following the service. In lieu of flowers, please contribute to your favorite charity. She also leaves four grandchildren, one daughter-in-law, Heidi Heine, one son-in-law, Don Summers; other relatives and many friends. Arrangements by Snowden Funeral Home. She is survived by her son, William H. After graduation and a few years in the Post Office, Steve joined the U. Park Police receiving the medal of valor in for rescuing a woman from drowning off Rock Creek Parkway.
Retiring in he spent the next years in Annapolis, Maryland becoming the best sailor he could be. Even living aboard and sailing the Islands. Steve leaves three grown children and one grandchild.
Anita's passions were her roles as a mother, therapist, and member of the Friends to Bill W. She is survived by her daughter, Nicole Rennie of Decatur, her sisters: Memorial services are Saturday, December 2, at 4 p. Howard Avenue, Decatur, Georgia. The Cremation Society of the South is in charge of arrangements, The cause of death is not available. She was reared in the metropolitan area of Washington, D.
She received a master of liberal arts degree from Johns Hopkins University and a master of social work degree from the University of Oklahoma. She was a licensed certified social worker with licensure from the state of Georgia. McCain came to Annapolis, Maryland, in She lived in Oklahoma and then moved to Atlanta where she practiced her profession as a therapist. She enjoyed being a therapist, a mother and member of the Friends of Bill W.
Memorial services will be held at 4 p. Southwest Atlanta, Georgia Madison; son of Martha C. Madison and the late Emmett C. Thursday, April 3 and where funeral services will be held 4 p. Matulis II was killed in a plane crash November 29, Beloved husband of Linda Matulis; son of Lt. Memorial services will be held at Fort Myer Chapel at Please omit flowers to chapel. Son of Mary D.
Friends are invited to assemble at Columbia Gardens Cemetery for inurnment services on Saturday at Family suggests that memorial contributions be made to The American Cancer Society or to a charity of choice. Also survived by six grandchildren and a host of friends. Mass of Christian Burial will be offered on Monday, October 20, 10 a. In lieu of flowers, memorials may be made in his name to The Cathedral of St. Mike grew up and attended Arlington County schools, graduating in from Wakefield.
Upon graduation, he immediately enlisted into the Navy, serving on board ships in the South Pacific, in and around Viet Nam. Because he was 17 at the time of his enlistment, he got out in three years.
He spent a few years in California, came back to Virginia, married, and enrolled in Strayer Business College. Mike worked several years in Washington for the Credit Bureau during the day, and on weekends he managed the Redskins' visiting locker room, which led him to be invited to be the Baltimore Colts equipment manager - a job which he loved - for over 7 years.
Mike did not travel to Indiana with the Colts. He moved back to Virginia and eventually went to work for GSA. He was working there when he was in a horrible car accident, which left him as a quadriplegic. After a year, he asked to be removed from the feeding tubes, and as a result, he passed away a day later. He left many friends, family and touched many people with his generosity. He was predeceased by a son, Eric. David was a loving father, devoted grandfather "OPA", and caring friend.
His memory and friendship will never be forgotten. In lieu of flowers memorial contributions may be made to the American Cancer Society, Sugarloaf Parkway. Wages and Sons Gwinnett, Lawrenceville Hwy, Lawrenceville, Georgia, online condolences may be expressed at www. A private family service will be held at a later date.
In lieu of flowers. Box , Fairfax, Virginia Michel died Monday of a heart attack, said his wife, Jean Mercer. Following his football career, Michel worked for the U. Postal Service, retiring after 35 years. His marriage ended in divorce shortly after his Navy service. He leaves two brothers, George and Louis of Northern Virginia. His entire family had been involved with food and restaurants since he was little. Pete had been living near Austin, Texas in a religious setting and was very content.
He was a chef for the sect when he died. Born in Washington, D. Evans was a graduate of Washington Bible College in and lived in Washington before coming to Aston 11 years ago. She was active with her husband's Christian Ministray and served as a missionary to Brazil as well as dean of women at Washington Bible College for two years.
Presently, her ministry was teaching women's Bible studies, conferences and retreats locally and in Great Britain. Surviving are her husband, Rev. Evans; four sons, Rev. Evans with the U. Navy in Seattle, Washington, and Mark Evans, at home: Evans, at home; her father, Dr. A memorial service will take place at 2 p. Miller, on Wednesday, June 7, , of Kensington, Maryland. Beloved husband of Frances E. Interment Parklawn Memorial Park. Box , Glen Allen, Virginia The Washington Post, Washington D.
He lived in Kensington, Maryland. Before joining the institute in , Mr. Miller worked for 22 years in Rockville for J. Lee Associates, a government contractor. He graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and received a master's degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in and a PhD in the same discipline from Catholic University in Miller was an active member of Knox Orthodox Presbyterian Church in Silver Spring, serving as an elder on the ruling committee of the church, a leader in the adult Bible study hour and choir member.
His hobbies included photography, playing the clarinet and saxophone, composing and listening to music, and solving Sudoku and cryptic crossword puzzles. Graveside service will be held at 3 p. Graveside services will be held at 3: She married Ronnie Machalek on May 22, in Arlington. She was preceded in death by a sister, Sandi Moore.
She enjoyed cooking, doing cross-stitch and working with children. She taught preschool for almost twenty years and was always helping others. Fred Newbold of Houston. Braddock Road, Alexandria, Virginia from 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 p.
Family requests that contributions be made to the American Diabetes Association in lieu of flowers. Christie, 59, will be held at 11 a. Lambert Road, Glen Ellyn, Illinois Interment will be in Westmoreland. Barbara was a graduate of the University of Iowa. An occupational therapist, she served at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago for 20 years and eventully became director of occupational therapy, a post she held until her departure.
Barbara was also a licensed insurance agent and worked as the office manager of her husband's insurance agency in Wheaton, Illinois. Surviving are her husband, Steve Christie; father, Dr. Nuttall; and brother, James R. Nuttall of Los Angeles, California. She was preceded in death by her mother, Virginia Nuttall. Visitation will be from 4 to 9 p.
Roosevelt Road one block east of Naperville Road , Wheaton. Memorials in her name to Village Green Baptist Church would be appreciated. Family and friends, are invited to sign the guest book at dailyherald. For information, Also survived by four grandchildren. Thank you and the committee for your condolences. Below are some of my thoughts about Neal for the memorial book.
Neal Orr was a very interesting guy who lived a rich full life, in spite of never making his hoped-for million dollars. Who else do any of us know who, among other things, once filed a gold claim in Alaska, roughnecked in the oilfields of North Dakota, drove a taxi in New York City, produced summer stock on Cape Cod, pioneered in cable television programming, and operated a tugboat and barge business in New York Harbor?
Neal and I became friends in when we shared the same homeroom and geometry class. He was noticeable because of his redheaded temper, keen wit, and propensity for fun. Somewhere in the haze of adolescent mayhem that is high school, I recognized that he was also incredibly intelligent, kind, and generous. Years later, when he became my love, I found that these qualities had endured. To some extent we can define people by what and whom they value.
Neal loved food, drink, smoke, an interesting book, a good joke, his buddies, me, and the family he acquired when we married - particularly the people we referred to as "the kids," who range in age from single digits to the 40s.
All the outstanding young doctors at Johns Hopkins who diagnosed Neal's fatal heart disease gave the same graceful response whenever we thanked them for their expertise and tender care. When Neal came home under the supervision of hospice, we talked of our good times together, and he thanked me for being his wife. Courtesy of Johns Hopkins, I knew to reply with the words, "it was a privilege. He was a practicing attorney in Springfield since Steven also was an adjunct faculty member at Western New England College.
He was a past President and member of the Board of Directors of the E. Steven was predeceased by a brother, David, who died in The funeral will be Monday October 21st at 8 a. He enjoyed fishing, motorcycles, boating and radio controlled planes and boats. After graduation from high school, Carol Sue spent her freshman year at the University of Virginia, Women's branch. Then, she moved to Hawaii to attend the University of Hawaii where her father was stationed on Oahu. While there she enjoyed surfing and a lot of sun.
Both her parents agree that Carol Sue had too much fun in Hawaii and she soon left school and moved back to the mainland California to work. There, she met and fell in love with Bob Mullen. Their first daughter, Patricia, was born in They followed with another daughter, Colleen, in They found a house near the beach and down the street from Carol Sue's parents, Susie and Manley Perry. Carol Sue had always wanted to finish her college education so she enrolled at Saddleback College and Cal State Fullerton and took night courses while raising their two daughters.
In , a son, Timothy Sean, was born making the family complete with two girls and a boy. After Carol Sue earned her degree, she worked as an accountant. After a few years working with a tax attorney, she started CS Mullen and Associates, which specialized in personal tax preparation, While Carol Sue worked extremely hard and long hours, she spent many days on the beach with friends and her family.
During her free time, which was limited, Carol Sue was always volunteering to serve on school boards or home association boards. In at the age of 47, Carol Sue was diagnosed with Stage 3 lung and brain cancer. After a long and very hard fight, she passed away in Laguna Beach on March 5, at the age of Carol Sue will always be remembered for her infectious smile and engaging personality.
She was a friend, a wife and the best mother. Carol Sue's husband, Bob, passed away in Her daughter, Patty, lives in Dana Point with her two children and husband. Colleen, lives in San Francisco with her husband and stepson and is expecting her first child. Tim lives in Danville, California with his wife and two children. Carol Sue's father, Manley, passed away in Susie still lives in Dana Point as well. He was born on September 15, in Washington, D. He served in the U.
Army and in Vietnam. He retired from NSWC in and later returned to work as a contractor. He enjoyed working on his cars, his motorcycle and doing yard work. He also enjoyed doing jobs around the house, his family describes him as "Mr. Box , Alexandria, Virginia or online at www. Bizzack, the morning of Sunday, August 27, , on Comair Flight , which crashed, while attempting to take off from Blue Grass Airport in Fayette County, Kentucky, four miles west of the central business district of the City of Lexington.
Married for 35 years, the couple has two children, a son, Jason, 26, and a daughter, Stacey, 24, both of Lexington. Bizzack, a native of Lynchburg, Virginia, was an accomplished equestrian and caring horsewoman, raising and showing Tennessee walkers, Belgians, Percherons and Mountain Pleasure horses as well as providing pasture for retired thoroughbreds. She was accomplished in the farm's cattle operations, including breeding and sales. She had a long standing reputation as an animal lover.
She cared for and bred Sicilian burros. In addition, her "extended family" included both purebred and rescued dogs, as well as other animals. In fact, hummingbirds hovering near her feeders were known to perch on her hand. She was also an enthusiastic traveler and had recently visited Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the American west.
She served in a variety of executive and legal secretarial positions in Washington, D. When she moved to Kentucky in , she worked as secretary to the President of Millersburg Military Institute. Later she worked as an executive assistant to the president of Kentucky Central Insurance Company and as an office manager for Hagyard, Davidson, McGee - an equine veterinarian clinic. Bizzack was known to friends and family for her quick smile, generosity and caring nature. She was dedicated to her large extended family that included 28 nieces and nephews.
Main Street, in Lexington from 5 to 8 p. Funeral services, also at Good Shepherd, will be held at 10 a. Burial will follow at the Lexington Cemetery. She retired from Lincoln Financial Group. She was preceded in death by her husband, Ronald Weber; and son, Christopher Weber. Arrangements made by D. Memorials may be made to the family. Podrasky was born on June 6, in Scranton, Pennsylvia. He is survived by his mother, Camilla M.
He is predeceased by his father Gregory George Podrasky. Michael Catholic Church, St. Michael Lane, Annandale, Virginia Donations may be made to the Virginia Elks Fund, Inc. Congress Street, New Market, Virginia She was born July 4, in California and lived in Asheville for the last years of her life.
Anna was a teacher, missionary, social worker and healer. She was also a founding member of Center of Unlimited Possibilities C. Memorial service will be held at a later date. Billie Ann Walker, known to many of you as Anna, granduated from Earthschool on August 30th, after an unexpected return of her cancer. Her passing was peaceful and without pain; her memory still shines within all of us; and her soaring spirit lives on!
You are invited to a celebration of Anna's life at Jubilee! Please join her friends and family for this memorial in her honor. Throughout his professional life he held many key roles in many large, diverse and complex projects which include sports facilities, airports, hotels and civil buildings, such as Staples Center, USC Galen Center, Invesco Field, Chase Field, Hawaii Prince Hotel and many other projects.
He is recognized by all the people he knows for his integrity, sincerity, humor, generosity, and his golf swing. Vernon's influence is far reaching, not only with his family and friends, but throughout the architectural and construction industry which he will have a profound influence on for many years to come.
We pray the Lord your soul to take. Steven James Rees lost his courageous battle with cancer on Oct. He is survived by his wife, Winkie; Sons Steven J.
Gordon Rees, Nicholas C. Rees, daughter Ellen S. Ronnlof Joseph ; Step-children John S. Jackson Lisa , Carrie E. Flamer Jeffery ; Sisters Susan R. Bittle Terry ; 12 grandchildren, nieces and nephews. He traveled the world first with his father's military career and then with his own. Steve served with the U. After retirement, Steve entered the world of banking, but his true passion was serving with the Boy Scouts.
He exemplified the ideals of scouting and was dedicated to sharing those ideals with the youth of Manatee County. He was a talented instructor and was always willing to share his knowledge with other scouters.
Steve received many awards from the Scouts including the Silver Beaver Award. Steve was a true Christian and lived by his beliefs. His dedication touched many lives and he will be greatly missed. Condolences can be e-mailed to: In lieu of flowers, please consider contributions to Camp Flying Eagle at: Max Lee, the Rev. Keith Jeselink, and the Rev. Survivors include his wife, Amaryllis Lea Rich, Mangham: Beloved husband of Diane M.
Michael Robertson of Springfield, Virginia. He is also survived by two grandchildren, Kyle and Emma Hammersley. Interment to follow in Fairfax City Cemetery. Graveside services will be held on Monday, November 1, at Mt. Arrangements by Colonia Funeral Home of Leesburg.
Lance served in the U. Navy for three separate enlistments: He is buried in Summersille, West Virginia. June 23, Graham Leith Ruppert, on June 20, , in an automobile accident. Graham spent most of his quiet life as an analyst at the super-secret National Security Agency at Fort Meade, Maryland, never telling his four children the details of his work.
He and his wife of 28 years, Sandra Lea Ruppert, raised their family in a split-level duplex snug against a patch of woods on Chapelgate Road in Odenton, Maryland.
The suburban neighborhood of chain-link fences, dusty pickups and boat trailers sits about five miles from the barbed wire of the NSA, a high-tech listening post in western Anne Arundel County charged with breaking codes and gathering foreign intelligence. A former NSA worker said Ruppert worked rotating shifts as a mid-level supervisor in the operations room of the main building, a towering blue-glass cube flanked by massive antenna arrays.
Like many at NSA, Ruppert kept to himself. Even in high school, he participated in few activities other than science clubs. Talking to people but not really looking at them.
Joseph Mercy Hospital with family and friends by her side after a brief but valiant battle with cancer. Karen was an active member of St. In both her private and professional life, Karen Dickinson will be most remembered for the gentle and insightful way she empowered people to reach their highest potential.
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