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Retinitis pigmentosa RP is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations--F45L, VM and FC--yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids.

However, tests of scramblase activity show that unlike wild-type rhodopsin that functionally reconstitutes into liposomes as dimers or multimers, F45L, VM and FC rhodopsins behave as monomers. This result was confirmed in pull-down experiments. Our data suggest that the photoreceptor pathology associated with expression of these enigmatic RP-associated pigments arises from their unexpected inability to dimerize via transmembrane helices 1 and 5.

The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant.

The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus. Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats.

It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus.

In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis. Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus.

Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described.

Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish Myxinoidea. However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans.

Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function?

In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes.

Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum--a genomic bandwagon effect.

Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function?

Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies.

All pieces are new and have been commissioned The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: Is This the Perfect Murder? Forensic autopsy, like the other sectors in medicine, has benefited from the technological progress and the creation of multidisciplinary teams to unveil more and more finely planned criminal intents.

Forensic pathologists, however, can sometimes deal with very enigmatic cases, meeting so with the limits of their own knowledge. Therefore, in these cases, they must not allow themselves to be pressured by inquiring agencies, remaining instead always faithful to empiric observations.

With regard to that, we present a peculiar case of death by shredding inside a grinding machinery. The magistrature consequently opened a dossier for willful murder. Lots of figures were appointed to solve the case and among them is the forensic pathologist. However, a great number of obstacles were put in the investigators' inquiries. Was it a perfect murder? An enigmatic , diminutive theropod footprint in the shallow marine Pliensbachian Hasle Formation, Bornholm, Denmark.

A well-preserved three-toed footprint, measuring 34 mm in length from a very small predatory dinosaur with an estimated hip height of mm and a total body length around 50 cm including tail, is reported from the type section of the marine Lower Jurassic Pliensbachian , Hasle Formation The morphology of the footprint is similar to the ichnogenus Stenonyx Lull from the contemporaneous Pliensbachian Szydlowek site in Poland.

Apart from the Polish material, footprints from diminutive dinosaurs are rare and reported from few other The occurrence of a diminutive dinosaur footprint in a shallow marine sandstone is enigmatic. The well-defined morphology of the footprint, together with the very small size of the trackmaker, excludes the possibility that the track was emplaced by a swimming or wading animal The cochlea of the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata informs mysticete phylogeny.

The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale Cetacea, Mysticeti. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species. The cochlea is large and appears to be sensitive to low-frequency sounds, but its hearing limit is relatively high.

The presence of a well-developed tympanal recess links Caperea with cetotheriids and balaenopteroids, rather than balaenids, contrary to the traditional morphological view of a close Caperea-balaenid relationship.

Nevertheless, a broader sample of the cetotheriid Herpetocetus demonstrates that the presence of a tympanal recess can be variable at the specific and possibly even the intraspecific level.

Enigmatic barrows without offerings: Full Text Available The structural simplicity of two large barrows and their lack of grave goods make enigmatic tomb types, that although part of the megalithic tradition, could be located in the Early Bronze Age Monte Deva V. The barrows, built by poorly nucleated societies in a context of very low population density, and with limited possibilities of exchange, are likely to be more due to a concrete funerary form, whose variations are considered, than to exclusively economic reasons.

Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic , geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros CHamoru of the Mariana Islands.

Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy SEM work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed and mostly male individuals.

SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms.

Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them.

Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate CaCO3 accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: Nanofibres can be either mineral calcitic or organic in nature.

They are very often observed in association with needle fibre calcite NFC , another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres.

In this paper the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC.

As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated.

Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres.

The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC.

It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres.

This highlights the possible involvement of fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented. Moreover, on a global. Reinvestigating an enigmatic Late Cretaceous monocot: Viracarpon exhibits character combinations not present in any extant taxa and its affinities remain unresolved, possibly representing an extinct member of Alismatales.

On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia.

Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust phylogenetic hypothesis of euthyneuran gastropods, as a basis to reconstructing their evolutionary history, is still hindered by several groups of aberrant, more or less worm-like slugs with unclear phylogenetic relationships. As a traditional "order" in the Opisthobranchia, the Acochlidia have a long history of controversial placements, among others influenced by convergent adaptation to the mainly meiofaunal habitats.

The present study includes six out of seven acochlidian families in a comprehensive euthyneuran taxon sampling with special focus on minute, aberrant slugs.

Since there is no fossil record of tiny, shell-less gastropods, a molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times within Euthyneura. Results Our multi-locus molecular study confirms Acochlidia in a pulmonate relationship, as sister to Eupulmonata. Previous hypotheses of opisthobranch relations, or of a common origin with other meiofaunal Euthyneura, are clearly rejected. The enigmatic amphibious and insectivorous Aitengidae incerta sedis clusters within Acochlidia, as sister to meiofaunal and brackish Pseudunelidae and limnic Acochlidiidae.

Euthyneura, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata as traditionally defined are non-monophyletic. A relaxed molecular clock approach indicates a late Palaeozoic diversification of Euthyneura and a Mesozoic origin of the major euthyneuran diversity, including Acochlidia. Conclusions The present study shows that the inclusion of small, enigmatic groups is necessary to solve deep-level phylogenetic relationships, and underlines that "pulmonate" and "opisthobranch" phylogeny, respectively, cannot be solved independently from each other.

Our phylogenetic hypothesis requires reinvestigation of the traditional classification of Euthyneura: This accreting white dwarf underwent an outburst in October, during which its brightness increased by at least five magnitudes, and it started exhibiting superhumps in its light curve.

Upon cooling to quiescence, the superhumps disappeared and it displayed the same periods in February as prior to the outburst within the uncertainties of a couple of seconds. This behavior suggests that the observed variability is likely due to nonradial pulsations in the white dwarf star, whose core structure has not been significantly affected by the outburst.

The enigmatic observations begin with an absence of pulsational variability during a multi-site campaign conducted in January-February without any evidence of a new outburst; the light curve is instead dominated by superhumps with periods in the range of minutes.

Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope time-series spectroscopy acquired in March reveals an effective temperature of 15, K, placing EQ Lyn within the broad instability strip of 10,, K for accreting pulsators. Optical photometry acquired during and Spring continues to reflect the presence of superhumps and an absence of pulsations.

Subsequent observations acquired in December and January finally indicate the disappearance of superhumps and the return of pulsational variability with similar periods as previous data. However, our most recent data from March to May reveal superhumps yet again with no sign of pulsations. We speculate that this enigmatic post-outburst behavior of the frequent disappearance of pulsational variability in EQ Lyn is caused either by heating the white dwarf beyond the instability strip due to an.

The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term.

Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods.

New clade of enigmatic early archosaurs yields insights into early pseudosuchian phylogeny and the biogeography of the archosaur radiation.

The origin and early radiation of archosaurs and closely related taxa Archosauriformes during the Triassic was a critical event in the evolutionary history of tetrapods.

This radiation led to the dinosaur-dominated ecosystems of the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and the high present-day archosaur diversity that includes around 10, bird and crocodylian species. The timing and dynamics of this evolutionary radiation are currently obscured by the poorly constrained phylogenetic positions of several key early archosauriform taxa, including several species from the Middle Triassic of Argentina Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum and China Turfanosuchus dabanensis, Yonghesuchus sangbiensis.

These species act as unstable 'wildcards' in morphological phylogenetic analyses, reducing phylogenetic resolution. We present new anatomical data for the type specimens of G. Our results indicate that these three previously enigmatic taxa form a well-supported clade of Middle Triassic archosaurs that we refer to as Gracilisuchidae.

Gracilisuchidae is placed basally within Suchia, among the pseudosuchian crocodile-line archosaurs. The approximately contemporaneous and morphologically similar G. Our results provide increased resolution of the previously poorly constrained relationships of early archosaurs, with increased levels of phylogenetic support for several key early pseudosuchian clades. Moreover, they falsify previous hypotheses suggesting that T. The recognition of Gracilisuchidae provides further support for a rapid phylogenetic diversification of crown archosaurs by the Middle Triassic.

The disjunct distribution of the gracilisuchid clade in China and Argentina demonstrates that early. Full Text Available The position of the Zoraptera remains one of the most challenging and uncertain concerns in ordinal-level phylogenies of the insects.

Zoraptera have been viewed as having a close relationship with five different groups of Polyneoptera, or as being allied to the Paraneoptera or even Holometabola. Although rDNAs have been widely used in phylogenetic studies of insects, the application of the complete 28S rDNA are still scattered in only a few orders.

In this study, a secondary structure model of the complete 28S rRNAs of insects was reconstructed based on all orders of Insecta. It was found that one length-variable region, D, is particularly distinctive. Thus, the similarity of D between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera can serve as potentially valuable autapomorphy or synapomorphy in phylogeny reconstruction. In addition, considering the other studies based on rDNAs, this study reached the highest congruence with previous phylogenetic studies of Holometabola based on nuclear protein coding genes or morphology characters.

Future comparative studies of secondary structures across deep divergences and additional taxa are likely to reveal conserved patterns, structures and motifs that can provide support for major phylogenetic lineages.

The enigmatic archaeal virosphere. One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats.

In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus-host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR-Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

The awards of the South African Armed Forces: Class IV; Officer Non-military Examining the Enigmatic Einstein. Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind.

This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. Enigmatic palaeohydrological data from the c. Of the two possible palaeohydrological formulae for calculating palaeoslope, one provides results close to typical fluvial gradients; the other formula relies on preserved channel-width data. We suggest that the latter will not be reliable due to problematic preservation of original channel-widths within an active braided fluvial system.

We thus find no unequivocal support for a unique fluvial style for the Precambrian, beyond that generally accepted for that period and discussed briefly in the first paragraph. Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian.

In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form.

The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it.

The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from. We uncovered a diverse pool of naturally occurring immune memories, with the RT-lacking locus acquiring a number of segments matching known viral or bacterial genes, while the RT-containing locus has acquired spacers from a distinct sequence pool for which the source remains enigmatic.

Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan. Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark.

Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, ] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms.

Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks.

Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

Geologists and astronomers alike hold that invoking a cosmic impact for their genesis is indefensible. The major axis orientations of Carolina bays are noted for varying statistically by latitude, suggesting that, should there be any merit to a cosmic hypothesis, a highly accurate triangulation network and suborbital analysis would yield a locus and allow for identification of a putative impact site.

Digital elevation maps using LiDAR technology offer the precision necessary to measure their exquisitely-carved circumferential rims and orientations reliably. To support a comprehensive geospatial survey of Carolina bay landforms Survey we generated about a million km2 of false-color hsv-shaded bare-earth topographic maps as KML-JPEG tile sets for visualization on virtual globes.

Considering the evidence contained in the Survey, we maintain that interdisciplinary research into a possible cosmic origin should be encouraged. Consensus opinion does hold a cosmic impact accountable for an enigmatic Pleistocene event - the Australasian tektite strewn field - despite the failure of a year search to locate the causal astroblem.

Ironically, a cosmic link to the Carolina bays is considered soundly falsified by the identical lack of a causal impact structure. All Survey data and imagery produced for the Survey are available on the Internet to support independent research. A table of metrics for 50, bays examined for the Survey is available from an on-line Google Fusion Table: This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle.

Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus-either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid.

These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships.

Rediscovery of the enigmatic fungus-farming ant "Mycetosoritis" asper Mayr Hymenoptera: Implications for taxonomy, phylogeny, and the evolution of agriculture in ants. Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper.

Since the description of the type specimen in , only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. We describe here for the first time the male and larva of the species and complement the previous descriptions of both the queen and the worker.

We describe, also for the first time, M. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that both M. Based on these results, and in the interest of taxonomic stability, we transfer the species M. Based on ITS sequence data, Mycetophylax asper practices lower agriculture, cultivating a fungal species that belongs to lower-attine fungal Clade 2, subclade F.

The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: The mammalian order Xenarthra armadillos, anteaters and sloths is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective.

We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the controversial fossil Eurotamandua.

Sequences of three genes nuclear exon 28 of the Von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNAs are compared for eight of the 13 living genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: Within placentals, Afrotheria might be the first lineage to branch off, followed by Xenarthra.

The morphological adaptative convergence between New World xenarthrans and Old World pangolins is confirmed. These Tertiary dates contradict the concept of a very ancient origin of modern xenarthran lineages. They also question the placement of the purported fossil anteater Eurotamandua from the Middle Eocene period of Europe with the Vermilingua and instead suggest the independent and convergent evolution of this enigmatic taxon.

A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of upper forelimb morphology in the enigmatic tapir Perissodactyla: Tapirus hints at subtle variations in locomotor ecology. Forelimb morphology is an indicator for terrestrial locomotor ecology. The limb morphology of the enigmatic tapir Perissodactyla: Tapirus has often been compared to that of basal perissodactyls, despite the lack of quantitative studies comparing forelimb variation in modern tapirs.

Here, we present a quantitative assessment of tapir upper forelimb osteology using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to test whether the four modern tapir species are monomorphic in their forelimb skeleton. The shape of the upper forelimb bones across four species T. Bones were laser scanned to capture surface morphology and 3D landmark analysis was used to quantify shape. Discriminant function analyses were performed to reveal features which could be used for interspecific discrimination.

Overall our results show that the appendicular skeleton contains notable interspecific differences. Features that most successfully discriminate between the four species include the placement of the cranial angle of the scapula, depth of the humeral condyle, and the caudal deflection of the olecranon. Previous studies comparing the limbs of T. Moreover, the mountain tapir T.

Despite previous studies describing tapirs as functionally mediportal in their locomotor style, we find osteological evidence suggesting a spectrum of locomotor adaptations in the tapirs. We conclude that modern tapir forelimbs are neither monomorphic nor are tapirs as conserved in their locomotor habits as previously described. Full Text Available Extensive morphological variability in Nemognatinae has often led to proliferation of species descriptions.

Most species of Nemognathinae are seldom encountered in nature and some species remain only known by the specimens used for the original descriptions. The rediscovery of specimens morphologically assignable to S.

Sitaris lativentris has been considered a synonym of Sitaris solieri Pecchioli, until now; however, neither the lectotype of S.

Alternatively, comparisons between S. The identity of Sitaris melanurus has been overlooked by most researchers, probably because the type specimens seem to be lost. However, the original description provides sufficient information to discard the inclusion of the taxon in Sitaris. Morphological characters presented in the description correspond to traits that, among western European sitarine beetles, are only present in Stenoria apicalis Latreille, As a consequence we include the name S.

The Enigmatic Persistence of Anorexia Nervosa. Objective In this review, based on recent advances in cognitive neuroscience, the author presents a formulation in which the marked persistence of anorexia nervosa can be usefully understood as a well-ingrained maladaptive habit.

Method The author reviewed the relevant literature on the development and course of anorexia nervosa and interpreted critical features in light of developments in cognitive neuroscience. Results Anorexia nervosa is a well characterized disorder with remarkable persistence both across history and among affected individuals.

Food restriction, the salient behavioral feature of the disorder, often begins innocently but gradually takes on a life of its own.

Over time, it becomes highly entrenched and resistant to change through either psychological or pharmacological treatment. Cognitive neuroscience has described two related but distinct processes that underlie the acquisition of new patterns of behavior, namely, action-outcome and stimulus-response learning.

It is likely that both processes are engaged in the development of anorexia nervosa and that stimulus-response learning that is, habit formation is critical to the persistence of the dieting behavior. Conclusions The formulation of the dieting behavior characteristic of anorexia nervosa as a well-entrenched habit provides a basis for understanding the striking persistence of this disorder. This model helps explain the resistance of anorexia nervosa to interventions that have established efficacy in related disorders and implies that addressing the dieting behavior is critical, especially early in the course of the illness, before it has become ingrained.

Burning mouth syndrome BMS is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth.

This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients.

The Enigmatic Face of the Moon. Whilst Man's only way of observing the Moon was with the naked eye, attempts at explaining the spots on her surface remained highly speculative. The telescopic observation by Galileo of previously unknown spots, differing from the earlier ones by their variability in time, was to signify a radical change to the hereto medieval ideas on the material composition of the Moon.

And curiously enough, this new scenario was a revindication of Plutarch's hypothesis construed more than a millennium before. Gephyrin, the enigmatic organizer at GABAergic synapses. GABA A receptors are clustered at synaptic sites to achieve a high density of postsynaptic receptors opposite the input axonal terminals. This allows for an efficient propagation of GABA mediated signals, which mostly result in neuronal inhibition.

A key organizer for inhibitory synaptic receptors However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli The enigmatic wind of 55 Cygni. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ''empty'' waves.

A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ''empty'' waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ''zeron''.

The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed. Psychobiographical Reflections on an Enigmatic , Paradoxical Personality.

They have portrayed the elusive, paradoxical Patrick as nationalist, revolutionary and martyr or as a flawed and failed human being. Moran, agreeing with comments made at an earlier time by F. In the case of Patrick Pearse the biographical information focuses on consensual aspects of his family background, his life experiences, his role as educator and his emergence as leader and hero.

With regard to psychological theory, there are many empirically supported perspectives than could have been applied in this psychobiography. However, for the purposes of this particular article three perspectives have been selected. In relation to the model of government adopted by the Constitution, the In the Gauteng Development Tribunal case, for example, one of the key questions The distinctiveness lies in the level at which a particular power is.

Constitution and the law, which they must apply impartially and without fear, favour Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji Diptera. A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf. The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf FIW , Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century.

Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka ka , during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over. Nuclear smuggling in Europe real dangers and enigmatic deceptions.

During the last years, alarming news has accumulated on smuggled nuclear material, migrating experts, stolen bombs and new miracle substances that render obsolete all nonproliferation efforts. Together with a look at the economic difficulties, sinking living standards, and rising unemployment in the CIS countries, a pessimistic impression evolves of how to control the huge Russian nuclear complex and how to stem further proliferation of nuclear weapons.

This paper tries to assess the dangers of nuclear smuggling and to discuss some possibilities for remedies. International Institute of Space Law submit as follows: He was regarded as a "guest cosmonaut" by the Russians and an. They provide the plasma membrane with chemical and mechanical stabilities and take part in fundamental biological processes including differentiation,. One function ascribed to apoptosis is the suicidal destruction of potentially harmful cells, such as cancerous cells.

Hence, their growth depends on evasion of apoptosis, which is considered as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Apoptosis is ultimately carried out by the sequential activation of initiator and executioner caspases, which constitute a family of intracellular proteases involved in dismantling the cell in an ordered fashion.

In cancer, therefore, one would anticipate caspases to be frequently rendered inactive, either by gene silencing or by somatic mutations. From clinical data, however, there is little evidence that caspase genes are impaired in cancer.

Executioner caspases have only rarely been found mutated or silenced, and also initiator caspases are only affected in particular types of cancer.

There is experimental evidence from transgenic mice that certain initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 and -2, might act as tumor suppressors. Loss of the initiator caspase of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-9, however, did not promote cellular transformation.

These data seem to question a general tumor-suppressive role of caspases. We discuss several possible ways how tumor cells might evade the need for alterations of caspase genes. First, alternative splicing in tumor cells might generate caspase variants that counteract apoptosis.

Third, pathways upstream of caspase activation might be disrupted in tumor cells. Finally, caspase-independent cell death mechanisms might abrogate the selection pressure for caspase inactivation during tumor development. These scenarios, however, are hardly compatible with the considerable frequency of spontaneous apoptosis occurring in several cancer types. Therefore, alternative concepts might come into play, such as compensatory proliferation.

Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that caspases might play non-apoptotic roles in processes that are crucial for tumorigenesis, such as cell proliferation, migration, or invasion.

We thus propose a model wherein caspases are preserved in tumor cells due to their functional contributions to development and progression of tumors. This has had a critical importance to security reform because it indicated, from the The improbability of sounds heard simultaneously with meteors allows the phenomenon to remain on the margins of scientific interest and research.

This is unjustified, since these audibly perceived electric field effects indicate complex, inconsistent and still unresolved electric-magnetic coupling and charge dynamics; interacting between the meteor; the ionosphere and mesosphere; stratosphere; troposphere and the surface of the earth. This paper reviews meteor acoustic effects, presents illustrating reports and hypotheses and includes a summary of similar and additional phenomena observed during the February 15 asteroid fragment disintegration above the Russian district of Chelyabinsk.

Links to the Armagh Observatory All-sky meteor cameras, electrophonic meteor research and full construction plans for an extremely low frequency ELF receiver are also included.

The enigmatic role of mast cells in dominant tolerance. The role of regulatory T cells Treg in peripheral tolerance has been studied extensively in transplantation research.

Recently, mast cells have been shown to play an indispensable role in allograft tolerance. The purpose of this review is to inform the reader on the current standings of the role of mast cells in dominant tolerance with an emphasis on the interaction of mast cells with Treg.

Mast cells are required to sustain peripheral tolerance via Treg. Treg can stabilize mast cells degranulation by contact-dependent mechanisms through the interaction of OX40 and its ligand OX40L, and by production of soluble factors, such as interleukin and transforming growth factor-beta. Conversely, the activation and subsequent degranulation of mast cells break peripheral tolerance. Both mast cells and Treg are needed to create a local immunosuppressive environment in the transplant.

Treg are not only necessary to suppress effector T-cell responses but also to stabilize mast cells. Mast cells in return could contribute to the immunosuppressive state by release of transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin and specific proteases. However, the molecular basis for mast cells control of Treg suppression in organ transplantation is still unresolved.

It is in this The significant effect of the phrase when read as a condition applicable to An advertisement to invite prospective students to register for law subjects appeared In the advertisement the PUC announced that they would present Prof Stef Coetzee said that he was a real gentleman and very witty. Thus … the debtor will have You may ask how Chaos Theory relates to family law.

It is true that Chaos Instead of a theory of limited private property rights in the service of Bacterial morphogenesis and the enigmatic MreB helix. Work over the past decade has highlighted the pivotal role of the actin-like MreB family of proteins in the determination and maintenance of rod cell shape in bacteria. Early images of MreB localization revealed long helical filaments, which were suggestive of a direct role in governing cell wall architecture.

However, several more recent, higher-resolution studies have questioned the existence or importance of the helical structures. In this Opinion article, I navigate a path through these conflicting reports, revive the helix model and summarize the key questions that remain to be answered. Bizri et al What it does, though, is provide us with a critical opportunity to The Act provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the To this end, the offender is put to terms ex post facto.

He has had his satisfaction. Now, in the face of the power of. The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of 'client' proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co-chaperones proteins with which it collaborates.

Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally-coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure.

Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Enigmatic tissue in the orobranchial chamber of cardinalfishes of the An unusual tissue covering the tongue and occasionally part of the gill chamber of many species of the Indo-Pacific cardinalfish genus Siphamia is described and compared with an earlier description of a similar tissue found in the cichlid species Alcolapia grahami inhabiting lakes of the African Rift Valley. Full Text Available Serrated polyposis has only recently been accepted as a condition which carries an increased personal and familial risk of colorectal cancer.

Described over four decades ago, it remains one of the most underrecognized and poorly understood of all the intestinal polyposes. With a variety of phenotypic presentations, it is likely that serrated polyposis represents a group of diseases rather than a single entity. Further, neoplastic progression in serrated polyposis may be associated with premature aging in the normal mucosa, typified by widespread gene promoter hypermethylation. From this epigenetically altered field, arise diverse polyps and cancers which show a range of molecular features.

Despite a high serrated polyp count, only one-third of colorectal cancers demonstrate a BRAF VE mutation, the molecular hallmark of the canonical serrated pathway, suggesting that though multiple serrated polyps act as a marker of an abnormal mucosa, the majority of CRC in these patients arise within lesions other than BRAF-mutated serrated polyps. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium.

Trichodesmium, an important nitrogen fixing marine genus has some coupled features that appear contrasting, either in their operational requirements or ecological dominance e. N2 fixation and photosynthesis take place in the same trichome, former The role of incitement before and during genocide Zion, played an instrumental part in stirring up feelings of anti-Semitism.

During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources IFRS sources were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. In terms of the South African common law, a landowner affected by an encroaching structure erected by his neighbour can approach a court and seek an order for removal of the encroachment.

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