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Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica the neem tree on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.

More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools.

However, bio- larvicides like. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc.

Under the Integrated Mosquito Management IMM , emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health.

Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed.

Larvicidal activity of neem oil Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year.

Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes.

The larvae were exposed to different concentrations 0. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied mg a. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.

Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. An application of the formulation at the rate of mg a. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB on bird eggs.

Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD 50 of 1. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment 10X.

Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings.

The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton Diptera: Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas.

Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz.

The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter.

This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide. Larvicidal , ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species. In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal , ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs.

The flower head extract of S. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested 20, 40, 60, 80, and ppm , the concentration of ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E.

Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti. Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening.

Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: The lethal concentration was determined log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual UV-Vis and infrared IR analysis.

Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm: IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient.

Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims traditional physicians. Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae.

These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

Roots against Aedes albopictus. Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. Compositae roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract.

Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control The larvicidal activity of extracts from Aloe turkanensis, Aloe ngongensis and Aloe fibrosa against the common malaria vector, Anopheles gambie, was determined.

Ground Aloe leaves from the three plants were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone and methanol.

Only the ethyl acetate Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control. Aloe, anopheles gambie, larvicidal activity. Extracts from plants in the genus Aloe Aloeaceae have been widely used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

Aloe species have long been known as medicinal plants Cheney, and Aloe vera species is most widely Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa C.

The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Among the seaweeds extract, C.

The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae.

Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx.

These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide , even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

A qualitative study of community perception and acceptance of biological larviciding for malaria mosquito control in rural Burkina Faso.

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Full Text Available through effects of hor- mone regulation with subsequent disruption of instar development of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefas- ciatus and Aedes aegypti [34]. Effect of Ambrosia maritima on Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. J Ethnopharmacol , Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res , Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB on red-winged blackbird embryos.

Mosquito larvicide GB poses a minimal risk to red-winged blackbird embryos when applied according to product label guidance. The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity EROD was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups.

Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X. Larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium essential oil against the malaria mosquitoes , Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium has insecticidal effect in Chinese traditional medicine.

In this study, the essential oil from the dried Zanthoxylum plant was used as a larvicidal compound against the malaria mosquitoes , Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis.

Compounds in the Zanthoxylum essential oil were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy GC-MS. The larvicidal bioassays of the whole oil, as well as the main compounds in the oil estragole and eucalyptol were performed using WHO method. In total, 63 main compounds A dose-dependent effect on mortality was recorded with increasing concentrations of essential oil and compounds increasing mortality of the larvae.

LC 50 of eucalyptol were The essential oil of Z. Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito -borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito -borne diseases.

Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii HRM1 and Ph. HS1 showed LC50 of 2. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.

Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito -borne diseases.

Mosquito larvicidal activity of Cassia tora seed extract and its key anthraquinones aurantio-obtusin and obtusin. Fabaceae is known to possess insecticidal properties against a wide range of plant-feeding insects. However, the bioactivity of extracts of this plant and their constituents against vectors of medical importance has been largely unexplored. We investigated the mosquito larvicidal activity of the seed extract and its major anthraquinones against larvae of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.

The mosquito larval mortality was evaluated relative to the natural insecticide azadirachtin. Results Fractionation of the crude extract decreased mosquito larvicidal activity, however, larvicidal activity increased with increasing dose of the treatment and exposure time.

The known anthraquinones aurantio-obtusin and obtusin were identified as key larvicidal compounds. Aurantio-obtusin and obtusin, exhibited similar toxicity to larvae of A. Conclusion Both aurantio-obtusin and obtusin showed mosquito larvicidal activity which were comparable to their respective fractions although they were less potent relative to the crude extract and azadirachtin.

Further studies need to be conducted on C. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Rauvolfia serpentina L. To establish the larvicidal activities, if any of solvent extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina R. Mortality rate with petroleum ether extract was significantly higher than other extracts. The mortality rates of late 3rd instar larvae were Results of this study show that petroleum ether extract of R. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB on mallard and bobwhite embryos. Golden Bear Oil or GB is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae.

The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB but the product label warns that? GB is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.

Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Recommended rates of field application of GB are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos. Golden Bear Oil GB I; legal trade name for GB is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression.

A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity EROD was detected. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors. To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts.

The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrus precatorius A. The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A.

These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes.

Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Bti to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia. Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions.

The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis Linn. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment.

Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. Full Text Available Background.

Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in , , and Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission.

In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides.

In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of This investigation indicates that N.

Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce Roxb. Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say Diptera: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce P. Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx.

Traditional herbal remedies and dietary spices from Cameroon as novel sources of larvicides against filariasis mosquitoes? In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests.

In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. The essential oils were obtained from different plant parts by hydrodistillation and their composition was analysed by GC-MS. Results showed that the highest larvicidal toxicity on Cx. Overall, the chance to use the D. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment.

The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus Diptera, Culicidae.

Full Text Available Abstract: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. The efficiency of the powder varied from Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A.

Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. Apiaceae seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. GC - Agronomy Impact factor: In- terestingly, we found that -mangostin Disruption of the sterol carrier protein 2 gene in mice impairs biliary lipid and hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

An anti- mosquito mixture for domestic use, combining a fertiliser and a chemical or biological larvicide. Plant saucers are an important larval habitat for Aedes aegypti and Ae. Because NPK fertilisers in plant containers tend to enhance the oviposition of these species, we investigated the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var.

Each treatment was compared with water and with fertiliser alone on a total of five houseplants and their saucers. The fertilising treatment was renewed every days. The average number of eggs laid in the three treatments was similar to the NPK treatment, indicating that spinosad, pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron did not alter the attraction effect of the fertiliser on egg laying. The addition of NPK fertiliser to insecticides can increase larval control of Aedes mosquitoes.

This innovative measure for personal protection, which is harmless for both humans and animals, would be an additional support for the community-based actions led by the institutional services for vector control.

Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors. Culicidae are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs.

Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil EO was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.

GC-MS revealed that the P. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asparagaceae root extracts against filariasis Culex quinquefasciatus , dengue Aedes aegypti and malaria Anopheles stephensi vector mosquitoes Diptera: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito -human interaction.

Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever.

These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes , viz.

The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period.

The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in. Full Text Available Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents.

Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito , Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern.

Only compound 18 showed strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Most active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties; thus, actives typically had ClogP values of around 1. This study indicates that active 3-acylbarbituric acids analogues have potential as lead compounds for developing novel mosquito control agents.

Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L. Full Text Available Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito , Ae.

The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract.

Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal activity of fruit extracts of Acacia auriculiformis against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex vishnui.

The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract.

GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of three compounds namely Ethane 2-chloro-1,1-dimethoxy, Acetic acid, 1-methyl ether ester and [4-[1-[3,5-Dimethyl-4[ trimethylsilyl oxy phenyl]-1,3-dimethylbutyl -2,6dimethylphenoxy trimethyl silane, responsible for mosquito larval death.

Larvicidal effects of Jatropha curcas L. Malaria vector control, Anopheles arabiensis, Botanical larvicides J. The white latex serves as a disinfectant in mouth Single-step biological fabrication of colloidal silver nanoparticles using Hugonia mystax: Mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats.

We proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs employing a low-cost extract of Hugonia mystax. Overall, we shed light on the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of H.

Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively.

This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from Millettia pinnata Fabaceae seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. Efficacy of 12 experimental liquid formulations containing M. The possible mode of larvicidal action of the constituents was elucidated using biochemical methods. Larval mortality and cAMP level were analyzed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparison method.

Potent toxicity was produced by karanjin, oleic acid, karanjachromene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, pongamol, pongarotene, and elaidic acid toward C.

All constituents were less toxic than either temephos or fenthion. Structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length, and the geometric isomerism of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid toxicity.

Acetylcholinesterase AChE is the main site of action of the flavonoids, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. The mechanism of larvicidal action of elaidic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid might be due to interference with the octopaminergic system. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid might act on both AChE and octopaminergic receptor. Receptor protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus mosquito-larvicidal toxin displays amylomaltase activity. The activated binary toxin BinAB from Lysinibacillus sphaericus binds to surface receptor protein Cqm1 on the midgut cell membrane and kills Culex quinquefasciatus larvae on internalization.

Cqm1 is attached to cells via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol GPI anchor. It has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 13 of the CAZy database.

Here, we report characterization of the ordered domain residues of Cqm1. Gene expressing Cqm1 of BinAB susceptible mosquito was chemically synthesized and the protein was purified using E. The observed hydrolysis and synthesis of glucose-oligomers is consistent with open and accessible active-site in the structural model. The protein also hydrolyses glycogen and sucrose.

These activities suggest that Cqm1 may be involved in carbohydrate metabolism in mosquitoes. The surface plasmon resonance study reveals strong binding of BinB with Cqm1 Kd, 9. BinA interaction with Cqm1 however, is fold weaker. Notably the estimated Kd values match well with dissociation constants reported earlier with larvae brush border membrane fractions.

The Cqm1 protein forms a stable dimer that is consistent with its apical localization in lipid rafts. Its melting temperature T m as observed by thermofluor-shift assay is Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analysis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases.

In the present study, larvicidal activity of flavonoid extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo Linnaeus and Andrographis paniculata Nees have been studied against the late III or early IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi Liston. Flavonoids were extracted from different parts of the selected plants using standard method.

Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds of the most active extract were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS analysis. Flavonoid extract of whole aerial part of A. GC-MS analysis of the most active flavonoid extract from flower-buds of Vitex showed 81 peaks. Flavonoid extracts from different parts of two selected plants possess larvicidal activity against two selected mosquito species, hence, could be utilized for developing flavonoid-based, eco-friendly insecticide as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of It was concluded that employed larvicide had limited activity against local breed of mosquito with risk of early resistance against this biological agent. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus Diptera: Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population.

In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles AgNPs synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram.

Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV on vector mosquitoes , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Full Text Available Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae larvicides and adults adulticides create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and toxic hazards to humans.

In the present study, a bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV, was used to control the dengue and filarial vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV was very effective against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing significant larval mortality. Evaluated lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 were age-dependent, with early instars requiring a lower concentration compared with later stages of mosquitoes. Fecundity rate was highly reduced after treatment with different concentrations of Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV.

Larval and pupal longevity both decreased after treatment with Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV, total number of days was lower in the B. Our results show the bacterial pesticide Bacillus sphaericus Bs G3-IV to be an effective mosquito control agent that can be used for more integrated pest management programs.

Generation of mariner-based transposon insertion mutant library of Bacillus sphaericus and investigation of genes involved in sporulation and mosquito-larvicidal crystal protein synthesis. Bacillus sphaericus has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Under conditions of nutrient limitation, it undergoes sporulation via a series of well defined morphological stages. However, only a small number of genes involved in sporulation have been identified.

To identify genes associated with sporulation, and to understand the relationship between sporulation and crystal protein synthesis, a random mariner-based transposon insertion mutant library of B. Sequencing of the DNA flanking of the transposon insertion identified several genes involved in sporulation. Four mutants blocked at early stages of sporulation failed to produce crystal proteins and had lower larvicidal activity.

However, the other three mutants were blocked at later stages and were able to form crystal proteins, and the larvicidal activity was similar to wild type. These results indicated that crystal protein synthesis in B.

Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Larvicidal potential of wild mustard Cleome viscosa and gokhru Tribulus terrestris against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of Western Rajasthan. Capparaceae commonly known as Tickweed or wild mustard and Tribulus terrestris L.

Zygophyllaceae commonly known as Gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance.

Comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of C. The 24 hr LC50 values as determined for seeds of C. Experiments were carried out with fruits and leaves of T. The 24 hr LC50 values, as determined for fruits of T. The results clearly indicate that fruit extracts of T. Extracts from the seeds of C. Eco-friendly larvicides from Indian plants: Effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

Culicidae are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors.

In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum Apiaceae leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

The EO was toxic to A. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4. Overall, this study highlights that H. A comparison between chemical and biological larvicides in routine operations against mosquitoes in Rio Grande do Sul State was carried out in this study. Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home.

Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes. Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera Aiton , Tephrosia purpurea L. For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique.

Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. Experiments carried out up to mg l- 1 with leaves T. In general, anophelines were found more susceptible than the culicines to the plant derived derivatives. More studies are being carried outon some other desert plants found in this arid region.

The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi. The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus lemongrass , Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis orange essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica housefly and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes through contact toxicity assay.

The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils 1: The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. The larvicidal effects of black pepper Piper nigrum L. Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies.

Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum , used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties.

The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. You may unsubscribe at any time. By subscribing, you agree to the terms of our Privacy Statement.

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More From Thought Catalog. Get our newsletter every Friday! SokLaHote , Dec 14, The start out of this lakorn is alright but i'm very bored of seeing pong, so probably have to skip when it's his part. Well wait for mos and captains part too Haha Pong will die soon if they stay true to the original storyline. I have never liked Pong. I have tried many many times watching his lakorn. This is just full of crazy. I dont mind crazy but if incest or near incest is involve, oh my the glory of hell is a definite no no.

The storyline does sound gross and disturbing but now that I've caught Noon's Tong Neua Gao fever, I must watch this lakorn Can't get enough of this woman's amazing acting abilities! Since CH5 is known for their super-filled drama plotlines, I take heed of what I will encounter.

Yes, Noon is Esa. She has 2 kids. Pong isn't one of her kids. He's the new neighbor that Esa and Paan Paan falls in love with and runs away with. Keep in mind Esa is about 20 years old now. She has raging horny hormones. She is pregnant again but with Bee Teerapong's kid from when she slept with him, drugged him, and he died.

At around months pregnant, she runs away with Pong and Paan Paan. Bam, they live in a menage trois lifestyle. EChangApe , Jan 7, This storyline seems so disturbing, but how does Paan Paan fit into the story with Pong and Noon? All I know is that she's in love with Pong and she's Nok's daughter.

Bee Teerapong is very sexy, and Noon very sweet. krisayaporn, Dec Noon's really taking these nam nao roles seriously. I'm really not a fan. Yakruea and Phromlaeng streams, Nam Nao National Park, Thailand. www.aftervisitingfriends.com Thesis, Khon .. The diploid eggs produced by female rotifers that can not be fertilized. A horny substance made of nitrogenous oligosaccharides that forms part of. I'm incredibly horny and unfortunately for me, I can't get myself off easily. For a while, I tried compensating for my boyfriend's lower sex drive.