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Upon her return home in June , she lived with her stepmother in Cedarville and spent winters with her in Baltimore. Addams, still filled with vague ambition, sank into depression, unsure of her future and feeling useless leading the conventional life expected of a well-to-do young woman. She wrote long letters to her friend from Rockford Seminary, Ellen Gates Starr , mostly about Christianity and books but sometimes about her despair.

Meanwhile, Jane Addams gathered inspiration from what she read. Fascinated by the early Christians and Tolstoy 's book My Religion , she was baptized a Christian in the Cedarville Presbyterian Church, in the summer of Yet she felt confused about her role as a woman. John Stuart Mill 's The Subjection of Women made her question the social pressures on a woman to marry and devote her life to family.

In the summer of , Addams read in a magazine about the new idea of starting a settlement house. She decided to visit the world's first, Toynbee Hall , in London. She and several friends, including Ellen Gates Starr , traveled in Europe from December through the summer of After watching a bullfight in Madrid , fascinated by what she saw as an exotic tradition, Addams condemned this fascination and her inability to feel outraged at the suffering of the horses and bulls.

At first, Addams told no one about her dream to start a settlement house; but, she felt increasingly guilty for not acting on her dream.

Starr loved the idea and agreed to join Addams in starting a settlement house. Addams and another friend traveled to London without Starr, who was busy. She described it as "a community of University men who live there, have their recreation clubs and society all among the poor people, yet, in the same style in which they would live in their own circle.

It is so free of 'professional doing good,' so unaffectedly sincere and so productive of good results in its classes and libraries seems perfectly ideal. The settlement house as Addams discovered was a space within which unexpected cultural connections could be made and where the narrow boundaries of culture, class, and education could be expanded.

They doubled up as community arts centers and social service facilities. They laid the foundations for American civil society, a neutral space within which different communities and ideologies could learn from each other and seek common grounds for collective action.

The role of the settlement house was an "unending effort to make culture and 'the issue of things' go together. The run-down mansion had been built by Charles Hull in and needed repairs and upgrading. Addams at first paid for all of the capital expenses repairing the roof of the porch, repainting the rooms, buying furniture and most of the operating costs.

However gifts from individuals supported the House beginning in its first year and Addams was able to reduce the proportion of her contributions, although the annual budget grew rapidly.

A number of wealthy women became important long-term donors to the House, including Helen Culver , who managed her first cousin Charles Hull's estate, and who eventually allowed the contributors to use the house rent-free. Addams and Starr were the first two occupants of the house, which would later become the residence of about 25 women. At its height, [33] Hull House was visited each week by some 2, people.

The Hull House was a center for research, empirical analysis, study, and debate, as well as a pragmatic center for living in and establishing good relations with the neighborhood. Residents of Hull-house conducted investigations on housing, midwifery, fatigue, tuberculosis, typhoid, garbage collection, cocaine, and truancy.

Its facilities included a night school for adults, clubs for older children, a public kitchen, an art gallery , a gym , a girls' club, a bathhouse, a book bindery , a music school , a drama group and a theater, apartments, a library, meeting rooms for discussion, clubs, an employment bureau, and a lunchroom. In addition to making available social services and cultural events for the largely immigrant population of the neighborhood, Hull House afforded an opportunity for young social workers to acquire training.

Eventually, Hull House became a building settlement complex, which included a playground and a summer camp known as Bowen Country Club. The art program at Hull House allowed Addams to challenge the system of industrialized education, which "fitted" the individual to a specific job or position. She wanted the house to provide a space, time and tools to encourage people to think independently. She saw art as the key to unlocking the diversity of the city through collective interaction, mutual self-discovery, recreation and the imagination.

Art was integral to her vision of community, disrupting fixed ideas and stimulating the diversity and interaction on which a healthy society depends, based on a continual rewriting of cultural identities through variation and interculturalism. With funding from Edward Butler, Addams opened an art exhibition and studio space as one of the first additions to Hull House.

On the first floor of the new addition there was a branch of the Chicago Public Library, and the second was the Butler Art Gallery, which featured recreations of famous artwork as well as the work of local artists.

Studio space within the art gallery provided both Hull House residents and the entire community with the opportunity to take art classes or to come in and hone their craft whenever they liked. As Hull House grew, and the relationship with the neighborhood deepened, that opportunity became less of a comfort to the poor and more of an outlet of expression and exchange of different cultures and diverse communities.

Art and culture was becoming a bigger and more important part of the lives of immigrants within the 19th ward, and soon children caught on to the trend. These working-class children were offered instruction in all forms and levels of art.

Places such as the Butler Art Gallery or the Bowen Country Club often hosted these classes, but more informal lessons would often be taught outdoors. The CPSAS provided public schools with reproductions of world-renowned pieces of art, hired artists to teach children how to create art, and also took the students on field trips to Chicago's many art museums.

The Hull House neighborhood was a mix of European ethnic groups that had immigrated to Chicago around the start of the 20th century. That mix was the ground where Hull House's inner social and philanthropic elitists tested their theories and challenged the establishment. The ethnic mix is recorded by the Bethlehem-Howard Neighborhood Center: Only Italians continued as an intact and thriving community through the Great Depression, World War II, and well beyond the ultimate demise of Hull House proper in Hull House became America's best known settlement house.

Addams used it to generate system-directed change, on the principle that to keep families safe, community and societal conditions had to be improved.

Starr and Addams developed three "ethical principles" for social settlements: In the s Julia Lathrop , Florence Kelley , and other residents of the house made it a world center of social reform activity. Hull House used the latest methodology pioneering in statistical mapping to study overcrowding, truancy, typhoid fever, cocaine, children's reading, newsboys, infant mortality, and midwifery.

Starting with efforts to improve the immediate neighborhood, the Hull House group became involved in city- and statewide campaigns for better housing, improvements in public welfare, stricter child-labor laws, and protection of working women.

Addams brought in prominent visitors from around the world, and had close links with leading Chicago intellectuals and philanthropists.

In , she helped start the new Progressive Party and supported the presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt. Although she sympathized with feminists, socialists, and pacifists, Addams refused to be labeled. This refusal was pragmatic rather than ideological. Hull House stressed the importance of the role of children in the Americanization process of new immigrants. In keeping with this philosophy which also fostered the play movement and the research and service fields of leisure, youth, and human services.

Addams argued in The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets that play and recreation programs are needed because cities are destroying the spirit of youth. Hull-House featured multiple programs in art and drama, kindergarten classes, boys' and girls' clubs, language classes, reading groups, college extension courses, along with public baths, a gymnasium, a labor museum and playground, all within a free-speech atmosphere.

They were all designed to foster democratic cooperation and collective action and downplay individualism. She helped pass the first model tenement code and the first factory laws. JPA provided the first probation officers for the first Juvenile Court in the United States until this became a government function. From until the s, JPA engaged in many studies examining such subjects as racism, child labor and exploitation, drug abuse and prostitution in Chicago and their effects on child development.

Through the years, their mission has now become to improve the social and emotional well-being and functioning of vulnerable children so they can reach their fullest potential at home, in school, and in their communities. Addams and her colleagues documented the communal geography of typhoid fever and reported that poor workers were bearing the brunt of the illness.

She identified the political corruption and business avarice that caused the city bureaucracy to ignore health, sanitation, and building codes. Linking environmental justice and municipal reform, she eventually defeated the bosses and fostered a more equitable distribution of city services and modernized inspection practices. This book was extremely popular because it was published in the traffic time of the Forced prostitution trade.

Addams believed that prostitution was a result of kidnapping only. Addams and her colleagues originally intended Hull House as a transmission device to bring the values of the college-educated high culture to the masses, including the Efficiency Movement , a major movement in industrial nations in the early 20th century that sought to identify and eliminate waste in the economy and society, and to develop and implement best practices.

Hull-House became more than a proving ground for the new generation of college-educated, professional women: Addams called on women, especially middle class women with leisure time and energy as well as rich philanthropists, to exercise their civic duty to become involved in municipal affairs as a matter of "civic housekeeping. Women's lives revolved around "responsibility, care, and obligation," which represented the source of women's power.

Addams argued that women, as opposed to men, were trained in the delicate matters of human welfare and needed to build upon their traditional roles of housekeeping to be civic housekeepers. Enlarged housekeeping duties involved reform efforts regarding poisonous sewage, impure milk which often carried tuberculosis , smoke-laden air, and unsafe factory conditions. Addams led the "garbage wars"; in she became the first woman appointed as sanitary inspector of Chicago's 19th Ward.

With the help of the Hull-House Women's Club, within a year over health department violations were reported to city counsel and garbage collection reduced death and disease. Addams had long discussions with philosopher John Dewey in which they redefined democracy in terms of pragmatism and civic activism, with an emphasis more on duty and less on rights.

Addams' construction of womanhood involved daughterhood, sexuality, wifehood, and motherhood. In A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil she dissected the social pathology of sex slavery, prostitution and other sexual behaviors among working class women in American industrial centers during — Addams's autobiographical persona manifests her ideology and supports her popularized public activist persona as the "Mother of Social Work," in the sense that she represents herself as a celibate matron, who served the suffering immigrant masses through Hull-House, as if they were her own children.

Although not a mother herself, Addams became the "mother to the nation," identified with motherhood in the sense of protective care of her people. Addams kept up her heavy schedule of public lectures around the country, especially at college campuses. She declined in order to maintain her independent role outside of academia.

Furthermore, she wanted no university controls over her political activism. Addams was a charter member of the American Sociological Society , founded in She gave papers to it in , , and She was the most prominent woman member during her lifetime. Generally, Addams was close to a wide set of other women and was very good at eliciting their involvement from different classes in Hull House's programs.

Nevertheless, throughout her life Addams did have significant romantic relationships with a few of these women, including Mary Rozet Smith and Ellen Starr. Her relationships offered her the time and energy to pursue her social work while being supported emotionally and romantically.

From her exclusively romantic relationships with women, she would most likely be described as a lesbian in contemporary terms, similar to many leading figures in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom of the time. Her first romantic partner was Ellen Starr , with whom she founded Hull House , and whom she met when both were students at Rockford Female Seminary. In , both had visited Toynbee Hall together, and started their settlement house project, purchasing a house in Chicago.

Her second romantic partner was Mary Rozet Smith , who was financially wealthy and supported Addams's work at Hull House, and with whom she shared a house. Their couplehood did not end until , when Mary died of pneumonia, after forty years together. When apart, they would write to each other at least once a day — sometimes twice. Addams would write to Smith, "I miss you dreadfully and am yours 'til death". According to Christie and Gauvreau , while the Christian settlement houses sought to Christianize, Jane Addams "had come to epitomize the force of secular humanism.

According to Joslin , "The new humanism, as [Addams] interprets it comes from a secular, and not a religious, pattern of belief". Others, like Hull-House [co-founded by Addams], were secular. In fact, the co-founders of Toynbee Hall , Samuel and Henrietta Barnett, shared Addams's desire to bring Christianity back to its roots. Part of what was called the " social Christian " movement, the Barnetts held a great interest in converting others to Christianity, but they believed that Christians should be more engaged with the world, and, in the words of one of the leaders of the movement in England, W.

Fremantle, "imbue all human relations with the spirit of Christ's self-renouncing love. Jane Addams's religious faith was thus a central motive in co-founding Hull House with Starr. She sought to convert others to Christianity in greater numbers.

A brief experiment in weekly prayer among the residents of the settlement house, requested by some of them, was highly religious and retained many converts to Christianity, to the delight of Addams and the other founder's helpers. Other settlements in both Great Britain and the United States later followed a religious approach and sought conversions. Addams's own religious beliefs were shaped by her wide reading and life experience. She had also been required to memorize a verse from the Bible every day at Rockford, and listen to a short sermon on the daily verse by the school's principal.

Evidence of this deep familiarity with Scripture can be found throughout her later writings. At one point, she was appointed "interim lecturer" at the Ethical Society. Addams also established a close relationship with members of the established Jewish community, notably with the rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Emil G. She went on to speak and campaign extensively for Roosevelt's presidential campaign. In January she became involved in the Woman's Peace Party and was elected national chairman.

This included meeting ten leaders in neutral countries as well as those at war to discuss mediation. This was the first significant international effort against the war. Addams, along with co-delegates Emily Balch and Alice Hamilton , documented their experiences of this venture, published as a book, Women at The Hague University of Illinois. Miss Addams shines, so respectful of everyone's views, so eager to understand and sympathize, so patient of anarchy and even ego, yet always there, strong, wise and in the lead.

No 'managing', no keeping dark and bringing things subtly to pass, just a radiating wisdom and power of judgement. In she became also a member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation USA American branch of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation founded in and was a member of the Fellowship Council until She faced increasingly harsh rebukes and criticism as a pacifist.

Her speech on pacifism at Carnegie Hall received negative coverage by newspapers such as The New York Times , which branded her as unpatriotic. Recognition of these efforts came with the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Addams in Addams was a major synthesizing figure in the domestic and international peace movements, serving as both a figurehead and leading theoretician; she was influenced especially by Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy and by the pragmatism of philosophers John Dewey and George Herbert Mead.

Addams became an anti-war activist from , as part of the anti-imperialist movement that followed the Spanish—American War. Her book Newer Ideals of Peace [79] reshaped the peace movement worldwide to include ideals of social justice. She recruited social justice reformers like Alice Hamilton , Lillian Wald , Florence Kelley , and Emily Greene Balch to join her in the new international women's peace movement after Addams's work came to fruition after World War I , when major institutional bodies began to link peace with social justice and probe the underlying causes of war and conflict.

In and world leaders sought peace by convening an innovative and influential peace conference at The Hague. These conferences produced Hague Conventions of and A conference was canceled due to World War I. The void was filled by an unofficial conference convened by Women at the Hague. At the time, both the US and The Netherlands were neutral. Jane Addams chaired this pathbreaking International Congress of Women at the Hague , which included almost twelve hundred participants from 12 warring and neutral countries.

Both national and international political systems excluded women's voices. The women delegates argued that the exclusion of women from policy discourse and decisions around war, and peace resulted in flaw policy. The delegates adopted a series of resolutions addressing these problems and called for extending the franchise and women's meaningful inclusion in formal international peace processes at war's end. Her leadership during the conference and her travels to the Capitals of the war-torn regions were cited in nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Addams was opposed to U. In turn her views were denounced by patriotic groups and newspapers during World War I — Oswald Garrison Villard came to her defense when she suggested that armies gave liquor to soldiers just before major ground attacks.

With what abuse did not the [New York] Times cover her, one of the noblest of our women, because she told the simple truth that the Allied troops were often given liquor or drugs before charging across No Man's Land. Yet when the facts came out at the hands of Sir Philip Gibbs and others not one word of apology was ever forthcoming. Nevertheless, the DAR could and did expel Addams from membership in their organization.

After , however, she was widely regarded as the greatest woman of the Progressive Era. Jane Addams was also a philosopher of peace. Positive peace is more complicated.

It deals with the kind of society we aspire to and can take into account concepts like justice, cooperation, the quality of relationships, freedom, order and harmony. Jane Addams philosophy of peace is a type of positive peace. Patricia Shields and Joseph Soeters have summarized her ideas of peace using the term Peaceweaving. Fibers come together to form a cloth, which is both flexible and strong.

Further, weaving is an activity, which men and women have historically engaged. And it has a feminine sensibility. Addams peaceweaving is a process which builds "the fabric of peace by emphasizing relationships. Peaceweaving builds these relationships by working on practical problems, engaging people widely with sympathetic understanding while recognizing that progress is measured by the welfare of the vulnerable" [99] In the 21st century, Addams is regarded as an early American democratic socialist.

While "no record is available of any speech she ever made on behalf of the eighteenth amendment", [] she nonetheless supported prohibition on the basis that alcohol "was of course a leading lure and a necessary element in houses of prostitution, both from a financial and a social standpoint. Hull House and the Peace Movement are widely recognized as the key tangible pillars of Addams' legacy.

While her life focused on the development of individuals, her ideas continue to influence social, political and economic reform in the United States as well as internationally. Addams and Starr's creation of the settlement house, Hull House, impacted the community, immigrant residents, and the social working nearby. Willard Motley , a resident artist of Hull House, extracting from Addams' central theory on symbolic interactionism, used the neighborhood and its people to write his best seller, Knock on Any Door.

This book and film brought attention to how a resident lived an everyday life inside a settlement house and his relationship with Jane Addams, herself. Addams' role as reformer enabled her to petition the establishment at and alter the social and physical geography of her Chicago neighborhood.

Although contemporary academic sociologists defined her engagement as "social work," Addams' efforts differed significantly from activities typically labeled as "social work" during that time period. Before Addams' powerful influence on the profession, social work was largely informed by a "friendly visitor" model in which typically wealthy women of high public stature visited impoverished individuals and, through systematic assessment and intervention, aimed to improve the lives of the poor.

Addams worked with other reform groups toward goals including the first juvenile court law, tenement-house regulation, an eight-hour working day for women, factory inspection, and workers' compensation. She advocated research aimed at determining the causes of poverty and crime, and she supported women's suffrage. She was a strong advocate of justice for immigrants, African Americans, and minority groups by becoming a chartered member of the NAACP.

Addams' influential writings and speeches, on behalf of the formation of the League of Nations and as a peace advocate, influenced the later shape of the United Nations. Jane Addams also sponsored the work of Neva Boyd , who founded the Recreational Training School at Hull House, a one-year educational program in group games, gymnastics, dancing, dramatic arts, play theory, and social problems.

At Hull House, Neva Boyd ran movement and recreational groups for children, using games and improvisation to teach language skills, problem-solving, self-confidence and social skills. Spolin went on to be a pioneer in the improvisational theater movement in the US and the inventor of Theater Games. The main legacy left by the influential Jane Addams includes her involvement in the creation of the Hull House , impacting communities and the whole social structure, reaching out to colleges and universities in hopes of bettering the educational system, and passing on her knowledge to others through speeches and books.

She greatly paved the way for women by publishing several books and co-winning the Nobel Peace Prize in with Starr. It should also be pointed out that this is the same mosque that the Norwegian police apologized so profusely to last year for the fact that we have freedom of speech in Norway.

The translated article from Dagsavisen:. Many Norwegians have a negative view on Islam due to Jewish domination of the media. We are visiting Central Jamaat-e Ahl-e Sunnat, the mosque with the largest member base in Norway, to talk to its spiritual leader. The mosque was founded in and currently has more than 5, members.

The Imam begins by explaining that all three heavenly religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are sacred to them. Many people are unaware of this fact, says Sarwar. Both of them believe that the school visits confirms their views that Norwegians in general have an inaccurate impression of Islam and Muslims. People are ignorant because they get their information from the media, and the media only write negatively about Islam. Only a handful of people were behind the movie about Mohammed in the U.

So who was financing them, who was backing them? A big tip of the Bodissey pickelhaube to our commenter Jolie Rouge, who has provided us with a brand new acronym. Note the aggressor is not named other than by geographical location e. North Africa, Afghanistan and surprisingly the inclusion of Turkey.

I think JIM could have great utility for our enterprise: Who will be the first major Western politician not counting Geert Wilders to break the greatest cultural taboo of our time, and mess around with JIM? Yesterday a group of Al Qaeda terrorists assaulted a natural gas plant in Algeria and killed two foreigners while taking 41 other hostage. Today Algerian special forces staged a helicopter raid on the plant, killing a number of the hostages — between six and 34, depending on whose figures you believe — in the process of taking out the terrorists.

Among the foreign hostages were American, British, French, and Japanese nationals. In other news, Germany has begun repatriating its foreign gold reserves, which are stored in vaults in Paris, London, and the United States.

The following article tells a brief tale about immigrant-on-immigrant violence in Cologne, with Muslims of immigrant background dealing it out and Russian immigrants as victims. It shows the attempts by a Turk to protect a Russian family and being killed for his trouble. The translated article from Quotenqueen:. Two criminal foreigners, free to terrorize their neighbors despite drug-related and violent crimes, killed a Turkish husband and father who tried to get them to behave.

It happened in a sector of the city called Bickendorf — a district notorious for years for immigrant violence and bordering on the thoroughly Islamized Ehrenfeld. But no one was killed. The Spanish government recently revoked his status as a political refugee in Spain, and he is due to be deported to Pakistan, where he will face the death penalty for blasphemy.

There is currently a push to persuade the Canadian government to grant him and his family political asylum. Firasat was interviewed recently on Alerta Digital TV. The video below shows the third part of the interview, and includes segments in English of a statement by Terry Jones.

Part 1 , Part 2. Many thanks to our Spanish correspondent Hermes for the translation, and to Vlad Tepes for the subtitling:. That means I am watching big, fat flakes accumulating on everything — though the driveway is still clear. Prior to that, we awoke this morning to heavy rains. It is our good fortune that there was never any period of transitional ice.

Why am I talking about the weather, you ask? Because this heavy wet snow may well eventuate in a power outage. Should that happen we would have no way to tell you why when, once again, no one seems to be home. And thanks to the generosity of our donors several years ago, we installed a gas cook stove so we can cook and have — thank heavens, again — hot coffee during the outage. Yes, we are careful regarding the possibility of carbon monoxide poisoning if we were to use the stove for heat.

Yesterday we reported on a group of young Muslim men who accost pedestrians in certain parts of east London. The original post included an embedded video taken by the group and posted on their YouTube account. As you all know by now, our blog was suddenly removed last night between 8 and 9pm EST for no apparent reason.

Blogger never provided any explanation before, during, or after the outage. I assume it was an internal technical problem at Google. Below is a portion of a mass email I sent out earlier today to dozens of people who had written to us to ask what happened:. One second it was there; the next it was gone. If we had violated their terms of service, we should have received an email, according to their own established procedure.

But we received no email. And, as you can see, I still have the gmail account. Late last night I began the process that one always goes through with Blogger: We actually received a response, which is unusual with Google. Based on the replies, there seems to have been a major problem with Blogger last night.

Many other blogs disappeared in the same fashion. But we should know for certain within another day or two. If it was a deliberate take-down, we will migrate to another platform with our own domain.

We back up the entire blog frequently, so only a few posts will be missing when we restore. After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address: Saturday, January 19, Seduced by Palestinian Propaganda. Babel on the Danube. Austria — The number of German-speaking primary school students has declined dramatically The number of pupils with a first language other than German has doubled from to Barely any students with German as mother tongue in Vienna The nationwide statistics conceals the dramatic developments in Vienna, because German is hardly spoken in the primary schools of the federal capital.

Here We Go Again. A response from Takuan Seiyo: The Bee and the Lamb, Part 9 Continued. The translated article from Dagsavisen: Imam blames Jews for media coverage Controversial: Then a statement is made that many will find far more problematic.

Interesting conversation — acknowledging the geopolitical threat to the West. JLH, who translated the piece, sends this brief note: The translated article from Quotenqueen: Many thanks to our Spanish correspondent Hermes for the translation, and to Vlad Tepes for the subtitling: Meteorological Update From Dymphna.

Jane Addams (September 6, – May 21, ), known as the "mother" of social work, was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, public administrator, protestor, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She co-founded, with Ellen Gates Starr, an early settlement house in the United States, Chicago's Hull House that. (0 votes, average: out of 5) You need to be a registered member to rate this post. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from www.aftervisitingfriends.com