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A white supremacist who opposed civil rights for blacks , Tillman led a paramilitary group of Red Shirts during South Carolina's violent election.

On the floor of the U. Senate, he frequently ridiculed blacks , and boasted of having helped to kill them during that campaign. In the s, Tillman, a wealthy landowner, became dissatisfied with the Democratic leadership and led a movement of white farmers calling for reform.

He was initially unsuccessful, though he was instrumental in the founding of Clemson University as an agricultural school. In , Tillman took control of the state Democratic Party, and was elected governor. During his four years in office, 18 African Americans were lynched in South Carolina—the s saw the most lynchings of any decade in South Carolina. Tillman tried to prevent lynchings, but spoke in support of the lynch mobs, stating his own willingness to lead one.

In , at the end of his second two-year term, he was elected to the U. Senate by vote of the state legislature. Tillman was known as " Pitchfork Ben " because of his aggressive language, as when he threatened to use one to prod that "bag of beef", President Grover Cleveland.

Considered a possible candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in , Tillman lost any chance after giving a disastrous speech at the convention. He became known for his virulent oratory especially against African Americans but also as an effective legislator.

The first federal campaign finance law, banning corporate contributions, is commonly called the Tillman Act. Tillman was repeatedly re-elected, serving in the Senate for the rest of his life. One of his legacies was South Carolina's constitution , which disenfranchised most of the black majority and ensured white rule for more than half a century.

Benjamin Ryan Tillman was born on August 11, , on the family plantation "Chester", near Trenton , in the Edgefield District, [a] sometimes considered part of upcountry South Carolina. His parents, Benjamin Ryan Tillman, Sr. Edgefield was known as a violent place, even by the standards of antebellum South Carolina, [4] where matters of personal honor might be addressed with a killing or duel.

One of his sons died in a duel; another was killed in a domestic dispute. A third died in the Mexican—American War ; a fourth of disease aged Convicted of manslaughter, George continued to practice law from his jail cell during his two-year sentence, and was elected to the state senate while still incarcerated. From an early age, Ben showed a developed vocabulary. In , he was sent to Bethany, a boarding school in Edgefield where he became a star student, and he remained there after the American Civil War began.

In , he came home for a year to help his mother pay off debts. He returned to Bethany in , intending a final year of study prior to entering the South Carolina College today, the University of South Carolina. The South's desperate need for soldiers ended this plan, and in June , still not yet 17, he withdrew from the academy, making arrangements to join a coastal artillery unit. These plans were scuttled as well when he fell ill at home. After the war, Ben Tillman, his mother, and his wounded brother James who died in worked to rebuild Chester plantation.

They signed the plantation's freedmen as workers. They were confronted with the circumstance of several men refusing to work for them and legally leaving the plantation. From to , Ben Tillman went with several workers from the plantation to Florida, where a new cotton-planting belt had been established.

The Tillmans purchased land there. Tillman was unsuccessful in Florida—after two marginal years, the crop was destroyed by caterpillars. They married in January [2] and she joined him in Florida. Tillman, though he was not very religious, was a frequent churchgoer as a young adult.

He was a Christian, but did not identify with a particular sect; as a result, he never formally joined a church. His religious skepticism also led to his avoidance of any further churchgoing almost immediately following his becoming a politician. Tillman proved an adept farmer, who experimented with crop diversification [2] and took his crops to market each Saturday in nearby Augusta, Georgia. By , Tillman was the largest landowner in Edgefield County. He rode through his fields on horseback like an antebellum overseer , and stated at the time that it was necessary that he do so to "drive the slovenly Negroes to work".

With the Confederacy defeated, South Carolina ratified a new constitution in that recognized the end of slavery, but basically left the pre-war elites in charge.

African-American freedmen, who were the majority of South Carolina's population, were given no vote, and their new freedom was soon restricted by Black Codes that limited their civil rights and required black farm laborers to bind themselves with annual labor contracts. Congress was dissatisfied with this minimal change and required a new constitutional convention and elections with universal male suffrage. As African Americans generally favored the Republican Party at the time, that party controlled the biracial state legislature beginning with the elections.

Butler , began to advocate what became known as the "Edgefield Plan" or "Straightout Plan". They believed that the previous five years had shown it was not possible to outvote African Americans. Gary and Butler deemed compromises with black leaders to be misguided; they felt white men must be restored to their antebellum position of preeminent political power in the state. They proposed that white men form clandestine paramilitary organizations—known as "rifle clubs"—and use force and intimidation to drive the African American from power.

Members of the new white groups became known as Red Shirts. Tillman was an early and enthusiastic recruit for his local organization, dubbed the Sweetwater Sabre Club. From to , Tillman served as a member of the Sweetwater club, members of which assaulted and intimidated black would-be voters, killed black political figures, and skirmished with the African-American-dominated state militia. In , a moderate Republican, Daniel Henry Chamberlain , was elected South Carolina's governor, attracting even some Democratic votes.

It occurred in Hamburg , a mostly black town across the river from Augusta, in Aiken County , bordering Edgefield County. The incident grew out of a confrontation on July 4 when a black militia marched in Hamburg and two white farmers in a buggy tried to ride through its ranks.

Both sides filed criminal charges against the other, and dozens of armed out-of-uniform Red Shirts, led by Butler, traveled to Hamburg on the day of the hearing, July 8. Tillman was present, and the subsequent events were among his proudest memories.

The hearing never occurred, as the black militiamen, outnumbered and outgunned, refused to attend court. This upset the white mob, which expected an apology. Butler demanded that the militiamen give one, and as part of the apology, surrender their arms. If the militiamen surrendered their arms, they would be helpless before the mob; if they did not, Butler and his men would use force.

Butler brought additional men in from Georgia, and the augmented armed mob, including Tillman, went to confront the militiamen, who were barricaded in their drill room, above a local store. Shots were fired, and after one white man was killed, the rest stormed the room and captured about thirty of the militia.

Five were murdered as having white enemies; among the dead was a town constable who had arrested white men. The rest were allowed to flee, with shots fired after them. At least seven black militiamen were killed in the incident. On the way home to Edgefield, Tillman and others had a meal to celebrate the events at the home of the man who had pointed out which African Americans should be shot.

Tillman later recalled that "the leading white men of Edgefield" had decided "to seize the first opportunity that the Negroes might offer them to provoke a riot and teach the Negroes a lesson" by "having the whites demonstrate their superiority by killing as many of them as was justifiable". Ninety-four white men, including Tillman, were indicted by a coroner's jury, but none was prosecuted for the killings. Butler blamed the deaths on intoxicated factory workers and Irish-Americans who had come across the bridge from Augusta, and over whom he had no control.

Tillman raised his profile in state politics by attending the state Democratic convention, which nominated Hampton as the party's candidate for governor. Although Tillman and his men arrived too late to participate in those killings, two of his men murdered Simon Coker, a black state senator who had come to investigate reports of violence.

They shot him as he knelt in final prayer. On Election Day in November , Tillman served as an election official at a local poll, as did two black Republicans. One arrived late and was scared off by Tillman.

As there was as yet no secret ballot in South Carolina, Tillman threatened to remember any votes cast for the Republicans. That precinct gave votes for the Democrats and 2 for the Republicans. Although almost two-thirds of those eligible to vote in Edgefield were African Americans, [30] the Democrats were able to suppress the Republican African-American vote, reporting a win for Hampton in Edgefield County with over 60 percent of the vote.

Bolstered by this result, Hampton gained a narrow victory statewide, at least according to the official returns. Tillman biographer Stephen Kantrowitz wrote that the violent summer of "marked a turning point in Ben Tillman's life, establishing him as a member of the political and military leadership". The purpose of our visit to Hamburg was to strike terror, and the next morning Sunday when the negroes who had fled to the swamp returned to the town some of them never did return, but kept on going the ghastly sight which met their gaze of seven dead negroes lying stark and stiff, certainly had its effect It was now after midnight, and the moon high in the heavens looked down peacefully on the deserted town and dead negroes, whose lives had been offered up as a sacrifice to the fanatical teachings and fiendish hate of those who sought to substitute the rule of the African for that of the Caucasian in South Carolina.

Starting with the election of Hampton as governor in , South Carolina was ruled primarily by the wealthy " Bourbon " or "Conservative" planter class that had controlled the state before the Civil War. In the s, though, the Bourbon class was neither as strong nor as populous as before. Having risen to the rank of captain in the rifle club before the end of the campaign, Tillman spent the next several years managing his plantations.

He played a modest role in Edgefield's political and social life, and in was elected second in command of the Edgefield Hussars, a rifle club that had been made part of the state militia.

He supported Gary's unsuccessful candidacy for the Democratic nomination for governor in , [38] [39] and after Gary's death in , [18] as a delegate to the Democratic state convention Tillman backed former Confederate general John Bratton for the nomination, again unsuccessfully.

In an attempt to better conditions for the farmer by which Tillman always meant white males only , in he founded the Edgefield Agricultural Club. It died for lack of members. Its membership also dwindled, but Tillman was elected one of three delegates to the August joint meeting of the state Grange and the state Agricultural and Mechanical Society at Bennettsville , and was invited to be one of the speakers. When Tillman spoke at Bennettsville, he was not widely known except as the brother of Congressman George Tillman.

Ben Tillman called for the state government to do more for farmers, and blamed politicians and lawyers in the pay of financial interests for agricultural problems, including the crop lien system that left many farmers struggling to pay bills. He assailed his listeners for letting themselves be duped by hostile interests, and told of the farmer who was elected to the legislature, only to be dazzled and seduced by the elite.

The result was Bennettsville. According to Zach McGhee in his article on Tillman, "from that day to this he has been the most conspicuous figure in South Carolina". Within two months of the Bennettsville speech, Tillman was being talked of as a candidate for governor in He made political demands, such as primary elections to determine who would get the Democratic nomination then tantamount to election rather than the leaving the decision to the Bourbon-dominated state nominating convention.

He principally promoted the establishment of a state college for the education of farmers, where young men could learn the latest techniques. This was a source of his nickname, "Pitchfork Ben".


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The result was Bennettsville. According to Zach McGhee in his article on Tillman, "from that day to this he has been the most conspicuous figure in South Carolina". Within two months of the Bennettsville speech, Tillman was being talked of as a candidate for governor in He made political demands, such as primary elections to determine who would get the Democratic nomination then tantamount to election rather than the leaving the decision to the Bourbon-dominated state nominating convention.

He principally promoted the establishment of a state college for the education of farmers, where young men could learn the latest techniques. This was a source of his nickname, "Pitchfork Ben". Wayne Morgan noted that "Ben Tillman's venom was not typical, but his general feeling represented that of southern dirt farmers.

Culpepper Clark in his journal article on Tillman,. Tillman constantly baffled his enemies. Every move he made seemed sure to be counterproductive; yet his popularity only grew He assailed his enemies with a tongue so outrageous that many believed only the demise of the code duello kept him alive Despite all this, his movement grew and multiplied, thriving best when the issues appeared contrived, contradictory or without foundation.

Tillman spoke widely in the state in and after, and soon attracted allies, including a number of Red Shirt comrades, such as Martin Gary's nephews Eugene B. Gary and John Gary Evans. He sought to mold local farmers' groups into a statewide organization to be a voice for agriculturalists. In April , a convention called by Tillman met in Columbia , the state capital.

The goal of what became known as the Farmer's Association or Farmer's Movement was to control the state Democratic Party from within, and to gain reforms such as the agricultural college. He initially was unsuccessful, [52] though he came within thirty votes of controlling the state Democratic convention. Tillman had met, in , with Thomas G. Clemson , son-in-law of the late John C. Calhoun , to discuss a bequest to underwrite the cost of the new agricultural school.

Clemson died in , and his will not only left money and land for the college, but made Tillman one of seven trustees for life, who had the power to appoint their successors. Tillman stated that this provision, which made the lifetime trustees a majority of the board, was intended to forestall any attempt by a future Republican government to admit African Americans.

The Clemson bequest helped revitalize Tillman's movement. Through letters to newspapers and stump speeches, he decried the state government as a pit of corruption, [2] stating that officials displayed "ignorance, extravagance and laziness" and that Charleston's The Citadel was a "military dude factory" that might profitably be repurposed as a school for women.

Richardson had been elected in ; in he sought re-nomination, to be met with opposition from Tillman's farmers. As had been done to Republican rallies in , Tillman and his followers attended campaign events and demanded that he be allowed equal time to speak.

Tillman was a highly talented stump speaker, and when given the opportunity to debate, accused Richardson of being irreligious, a gambler and a drunkard. Even so, Richardson was easily re-nominated by the state Democratic convention, which turned down Tillman's demand for a primary election.

Tillman proposed the customary gracious motion that Richardson's nomination be made unanimous. One factor that helped Tillman and his movement in the campaign was the organization of many South Carolina farmers under the auspices of the Farmers' Alliance. The Alliance, which had spread through much of the agricultural South and West since its origin in Texas, sought to get farmers to work together cooperatively and seek reform.

From that organization would come the People's Party better known as the Populists. Although the Populist Party played a significant role in the politics of the s, it did not do so in South Carolina, where Tillman had already channeled agricultural discontent into an attempt to take over the Democratic Party.

In January , Tillmanite leader George Washington Shell published what came to be known as the "Shell Manifesto" in a Charleston newspaper, setting forth the woes of farmers under the Conservative government, and calling for them to elect delegates to meet in March to recommend a candidate for governor.

Both Tillman supporters and Conservatives realized the purpose was to pre-empt the Democratic convention's choice, and fresh, acrimonious debate over the merits of Tillman and his methods began. He and his supporters were often attacked in the newspapers by the Conservatives, but such invective by the hated elites only tended to endear Tillman the more to the farmers who saw him as their champion.

Conservatives were certain that once Tillman's voters understood how wealthy he was while speaking for debt-ridden farmers, they would abandon him; they did not. Irby nominated Tillman, stating "shame on the [Democratic] party for stabbing Gary, a man who had saved in [ sic ] us in ' Tillman spent the summer of making speeches and debating two rivals former general Bratton and state Attorney General Joseph H.

Earle for the nomination, as the Democratic leadership watched with increasing consternation. Given Tillman's strength at the grassroots level, he was likely to be the choice of the Democratic convention in September. Accordingly, the party's Bourbon-controlled state executive committee tried to use the brief August convention called to set the rules for the September one to change the nomination method to a primary, in which the anti-Tillman forces would unite behind a single candidate.

When the August convention was held, the Tillmanites had a large majority, which they used to oust the executive committee and install one loyal to Tillman. The convention also passed a new party constitution calling for a primary, beginning in Tillman was duly nominated in September as the Democratic candidate for governor, with Eugene Gary as his running mate for lieutenant governor. After the convention many Conservative Democrats, though not happy at Tillman's victory, acknowledged him as head of the state party.

Those who submitted to Tillman's rule included Hampton and Butler, the state's two U. Those Democrats who could not abide Tillman's candidacy held an October meeting with 20 of South Carolina's 35 counties represented, and nominated Alexander Haskell for governor. The announcement that Haskell would run caused a closing of Democratic ranks against him, lest white unity be sundered.

The Haskell campaign reached out to black voters, pledging that he would not disturb the limited political role played by African Americans in the state, a promise Tillman was unlikely to make. During Tillman's five years of agricultural advocacy, he had rarely discussed the question of the African American.

With blacks given control of one of South Carolina's seven congressional districts, the question of black influence in state politics seemed settled and did not play a significant role in the campaign for the Democratic nomination for governor. Tillman boasted of his deeds at Hamburg and Ellenton, but it was Gary who made race the focus of his campaign. Urging segregation of railroad cars, Gary asked, "what white man wants his wife or sister sandwiched between a big bully buck and a saucy wench"?

Although Tillman fully expected to win, he warned that should he be defeated by ballot-box stuffing, there would be war. Tillman was sworn in as governor in Columbia on December 4, , before a crowd of jubilant supporters, the largest to see South Carolina's governor inaugurated since Hampton's swearing-in.

In his inaugural address, Tillman celebrated his victory, "the citizens of this great commonwealth have for the first time in its history demanded and obtained for themselves the right to choose her Governor; and I, as the exponent and leader of the revolution which brought about the change, am here to take the solemn oath of office Tillman made it clear he was not content that African Americans were allowed even a limited role in the political life of South Carolina:.

The whites have absolute control of the State government, and we intend at any and all hazards to retain it. The intelligent exercise of the right of suffrage We deny, without regard to color, that " all men are created equal "; it is not true now, and was not true when Jefferson wrote it. The legislature, at Tillman's recommendation, reapportioned itself, costing Charleston County four of its twelve seats, and other lowcountry counties one each, with the seats going to the upcountry.

Construction of Clemson College was slowed, and subsidies for fairs were cut. Among the matters before the new, Tillman-controlled legislature was who should fill the Senate seat held by Hampton, whose term expired in March —until , state legislatures elected senators.

There was a call from many in the South Carolina Democratic Party to re-elect Hampton, who had played a major role in the state for the past thirty years, in war and peace. Tillman was embittered against Hampton for a number of slights, including the senator's neutrality in the race against Haskell. The legislature retired Hampton, who received only 43 of votes, and sent Irby to Washington in his place. The ouster of Hampton was controversial, and remained so for decades afterwards; according to Simkins writing in , "to future generations of South Carolinians, Tillman's act was a ruthless violation of cherished traditions of which Hampton was a living symbol".

Tillman as governor initially took a strong stand against lynching. The Shell Manifesto, in reciting the ills of Conservative government, had blamed the Bourbons for encouraging lynching through bad laws and poor administration. Although Governor Richardson, Tillman's predecessor, had taken action to prevent such murders, they still occurred, with no one being prosecuted for them.

In about half of the lynchings in South Carolina between and , there were claims that the black victim had raped or tried to rape a white woman, though studies have shown that lynchings were tied to economic and social issues. More lynchings took place in South Carolina in the s than in any other decade, and in Edgefield and several other counties, such killings outnumbered lawful executions.

During Tillman's first year in office there were no lynchings, compared with 12 in Richardson's last year, which Simkins attributed to Tillman's "vigorous attitude towards law enforcement". Tillman's calls to redistrict away the one congressional district dominated by African Americans, and for a constitutional convention to disenfranchise them also fell in the Senate, where the convention proposal failed to attract the necessary two-thirds majority.

The only enactment that struck at the African American in Tillman's first term imposed a prohibitive tax on labor agents, who were recruiting local farm hands to move out of state. In December , soon after the first anniversary of Tillman's taking office, a black Edgefield man named Dick Lundy was charged with murdering the sheriff's son, and was taken from the jail and lynched. Tillman sent the state solicitor to Edgefield to investigate the matter, and ridiculed the coroner's jury verdict. As usual in cases of lynching, it stated the deceased had been killed by persons unknown.

Tillman said, "the law received a wound for every bullet shot into Dick Lundy's body. In April , Mamie Baxter, a fourteen-year-old girl in Denmark , Barnwell County , alleged that an African American unknown to her had attempted to attack her. About twenty black men were detained and paraded before her; she stated that Henry Williams looked something like the man she had seen.

Placed on what passed for a trial by the mob that took him from the jail, Williams produced several respected white men to support his alibi. A majority of the mob voted against killing him, and Williams was returned to jail. More searches were made for Baxter's attacker.

A suspect in the case, John Peterson, appealed to Tillman for protection, fearing he would be lynched if taken to Denmark, and stating he could prove his innocence.

Tillman sent Peterson to Denmark with a single guard. He was taken by the mob, put on "trial", and after the mob found him guilty, was murdered. There was widespread outrage among both races across the country, both at the actions of the lynchers and at what Tillman had done. The governor said, in response, that he had assumed that, as the mob had been convinced by Williams' defense, it would allow Peterson to prove his innocence as well.

He thereafter ignored the issue of the Denmark lynching. There were five lynchings in South Carolina during Tillman's first term, and thirteen during his second. Yet as governor, he was sworn to uphold the rule of law. He attempted to finesse the matter by seeking to appeal to both sides, demanding that the law be followed, but that he would, as he stated in , "willingly lead a mob in lynching a Negro who had committed an assault on a white woman".

Under criticism, he amended this to a willingness to lead the lynching of "a man of any color who assaults a virtuous woman of any color"—the adjective "virtuous" limiting the commitment, in Tillman's view, to assaults on white women. During Tillman's second term, he had the legislature pass a bill to abolish elected local government, in favor of gubernatorial appointment of municipal and county officials. Tillman used this law to oust black officials even where that race held a voting majority.

Tillman discouraged northerners from sending aid to African Americans, fearing it would result in "lazy, idle crowds [wanting to] draw rations, as in the days of the Freedmen's Bureau They cannot be treated as we would white people. During the South Carolina state constitutional convention, however, Tillman supported a provision that permitted the removal from office of sheriffs who through negligence or connivance permitted a lynching.

The question of prohibition of alcohol was a major issue in South Carolina during Tillman's governorship. Tillman opposed banning alcohol, but was careful to speak well of temperance advocates, many of whom were women. The concern Tillman had with alcohol issues was that they divided the white community, leaving openings for black Republicans to exploit.

In the election, South Carolinians passed a non-binding referendum calling for prohibition. Bills were introduced into both houses of the state legislature that December to accomplish this, and passed the House of Representatives. Before the House bill could be passed by the Senate, Tillman sent a proposal in the form of an amendment, with instructions to pass the amended bill, and enact nothing else on the subject.

Based on a system that had been successful in Athens, Georgia , the bill banned the private sale of alcohol, setting up a system of dispensaries that would sell alcohol in sealed containers—sale by the drink, and consumption on the premises, would not be permitted.

Both houses passed Tillman's amendment, though there was opposition both within and outside the legislature. The dispensary system went into effect on July 1, The new law was met with considerable resistance, especially in the towns and cities, where Tillman had less support.

Dozens of clandestine saloons opened, fueled by barrels of illicit liquor, often transported by railroad. Tillman appointed dispensary constables, who tried to seize such shipments, to be frustrated by the fact that the South Carolina Railroad was in federal receivership, and state authorities could not confiscate goods entrusted to it. All of Tillman's constables were white, placing him at a disadvantage in dealing with the alcohol trade among African Americans.

Some of the constables tried going undercover by blacking their faces like minstrels ; later, Tillman hired an African-American detective from Georgia.

The small city of Darlington became a center of the bootlegging trade, with many illegal saloons. Tillman repeatedly warned the local mayor to crack down; when this did not occur, in April , Tillman sent a train full of constables and other enforcement personnel to Darlington.

They were repelled by gunfire, with dead on both sides. Tillman called out the state militia, which put down the unrest, though some units refused to serve. After the incident, Tillman disbanded the units of the militia that had refused his orders, and organized new companies to serve in their place.

The Darlington riot divided the state politically as Tillman prepared to seek Butler's seat in the Senate, which would be filled by the legislature in December Only weeks after the Darlington affair, the South Carolina Supreme Court declared the act creating the dispensary system in violation of the state constitution on the grounds that the government had no right to run a profit-making business.

The vote was 2—1, with Justice Samuel McGowan in the majority. McGowan was a lame duck in office; Lieutenant Governor Gary had been elected to fill his seat effective August 1, Tillman closed the dispensaries temporarily, resulting in prohibition in South Carolina, and fired the constables. He had taken the precaution, once the court agreed to take the dispensary case, of having the legislature pass a revised dispensary law.

When Gary took the bench, the Tillmanites would have a majority on the state Supreme Court, and Tillman instructed trial justices not to hear challenges to the law until after August 1. Tillman kept the law suspended until then, afterwards reopening the dispensaries under that statute. The high court declared the act constitutional on October 8, , 2—1, with Gary voting in the majority. Elected with support from the Farmers' Alliance and as a result of agricultural protest, Tillman was thought likely to join the Populists in their challenge to the established parties.

Tillman refused, and generally opposed Populist positions that went beyond his program of increasing access to higher education and reform of the Democratic Party white supremacy was not a Populist position. The Alliance and Populists demanded a system of subtreasuries under the federal government, that could accept farmers' crops and advance them 80 percent of the value interest-free.

Tillman, not wanting more federal officeholders in the state that in Republican administrations might be filled by African Americans , initially opposed the proposal.

Many farmers felt strongly about this issue, and in , Tillman was censured by the state Alliance for his opposition. Attuned to political necessities, Tillman gradually came to support the subtreasuries in time for his re-election campaign in , though he was never an active proponent. Tillman spoke at the opening of Clemson College on July 6, He took a personal interest in the bidding by various towns around the state for the new school, and supported the successful candidate, the progressive town of Rock Hill , on the state's northern border.

Rock Hill officials had offered land, cash, and building materials. The school, then admitting only white women, opened in October , after Tillman had become a senator. Tillman sought election to a second two-year term in , presenting himself as a reforming alternative to the Conservatives.

In the campaign, Tillman was a strong supporter of free silver or bimetallism , making silver legal tender at the historic ratio to gold of Such a policy would inflate the currency, and Tillman felt that would make it easier for the farmer to repay debts. The rhetoric of free silver suited Tillman as well, as he could make himself appear the champion of the farmer against the powerful interests that had committed the " Crime of '73 " as silver supporters termed the act ending bimetallism in the United States.

Announcing that a primary for , as had been prescribed two years before, was anti-reform, Tillman put off the first Democratic gubernatorial primary in the state until The bitter campaign was marked by violence, often set off by provocative language from the candidates.

According to Kantrowitz, Tillman "sought to prolong the confrontation, to take the crowd up to the edge of violence, demonstrating his identification with his farmers without quite provoking them to murder".

As the likely Democratic presidential candidate for , former president Grover Cleveland , was a staunch opponent of free silver, Tillman attacked Cleveland. Most of the South Carolina delegation, including Tillman, voted against Cleveland at the convention , but when the former president was nominated, the governor worked to deliver South Carolina for Cleveland by an overwhelming margin.

Cleveland was elected, but the new president was offended by Tillman's earlier attacks, and denied the governor any role in patronage in South Carolina, entrusting it to Senator Matthew Butler and other remaining Conservatives.

Tillman's inability to provide federal jobs for supporters made it more difficult for him to hold his coalition together. Tillman continued his verbal assaults, stating that Cleveland "is an old bag of beef and I am going to Washington with a pitchfork and prod him in his old fat ribs"—thus popularizing Tillman as "Pitchfork Ben". During the campaign, Tillman called for the defeat in the Democratic primary for the legislature of most of the men elected as his supporters, urging the selection of more loyal men.

The convention was mostly Tillmanite, and gave the governor an easy triumph. The Conservatives had agreed not to bolt the party, and Tillman won uncontested re-election.

Tillman had long seen a Senate seat as a logical next step once he concluded his time as governor. Senator Butler, whose term expired in March , had soon after the election begun to shift his positions towards Tillman's, hoping to retain Conservative backing while appealing to the governor's supporters.

The senator signed on to most demands of the Farmers' Alliance, and did not support the forces trying to prevent Tillman's re-nomination in Butler's seeming apostasy disheartened Conservatives, who did not bother to run candidates for the legislature in many counties in , abandoning the field and Butler's Senate seat to the Tillmanites.

The governor took nothing for granted, seeing to it that popular candidates, loyal to him, ran for the legislature. In addition to electing Tillman to the Senate, these legislators could help preserve his gubernatorial legacy, including the dispensary. Butler was aware of the uphill struggle he faced, and called for a primary for senator, with all Democratic legislators committed to vote to elect the winner.

Tillman, who had already finalized his plans to win in the legislature, refused. The series of debates that marked a campaign summer in South Carolina began on June 18, Butler believed he could still win by appealing to the electorate [] in the same manner as Tillman; the senator thought he understood the lessons of as well as anyone. In the debates, Butler and Tillman matched slander for slander, with Butler claiming that at Hamburg, when the shooting started, Tillman was "nowhere to be found".

According to Kantrowitz, "their struggle over the legacy of was in part over who could more legitimately claim to have murdered" African Americans. Although this tactic had been used by Butler and other Democrats against the Republicans in , Butler now decried it as "not Christian civilization to howl anyone down". Balked again, Butler attempted to turn the campaign personal, calling Tillman a liar and trying to strike him.

Tillman warned that Butler's tactics risked sundering white unity, stating to a questioner who asked why he did not meet Butler's insults with violence, "Yes, I tell you, you cowardly hound, why I took them [the insults], and I'll meet you wherever you want to. I took them because I, as governor of the State, could not afford to create a row at a public meeting and have our people murder each other like dogs.

By early July, Butler had realized the futility of his race, and took to ignoring Tillman in his speeches, which the governor reciprocated, taking much of the drama from the debates. The two men even rode in the same carriage on July 4. Nevertheless, Butler refused to surrender, even after the primary for the legislature was overwhelmingly won by the Tillmanites, threatening action in the courts and an election contest before the Senate.

Butler received 21 and three votes were scattered. Throughout his time as governor, Tillman had sought a convention to rewrite South Carolina's Reconstruction-era constitution. His main purpose in doing so was to disenfranchise African Americans. They opposed Tillman's proposal, as did others, who had seen previous efforts to restrict the franchise rebound against white voters.

Tillman was successful in getting the legislature to place a referendum for a constitutional convention on the November general election ballot. Opponents sued in the courts to overturn the referendum result; they were unsuccessful. During the convention, Tillman hailed it as "a fitting capstone to the triumphal arch which the common people have erected to liberty, progress, and Anglo-Saxon civilization since ". To assure white unity, Tillman allowed the election of Conservatives as about a third of delegates.

The convention assembled in Columbia in September , [] consisting of Tillmanites, 42 Conservatives, and six African Americans. Tillman was the dominant figure of the convention, chairing the Committee on the Rights of Suffrage, which was to craft language to accomplish the disenfranchisement.

Constrained by the requirement of the federal Fifteenth Amendment that men of all races be allowed to vote, the committee sought language that though superficially nondiscriminatory would operate or could be used to take the vote from most African Americans. Tillman spoke to the convention on October In addition to supporting the provisions of the draft document, he recalled How did we recover our liberty?

By fraud and violence. We tried to overcome the thirty thousand majority by honest methods, which was a mathematical impossibility. After we had borne these indignities for eight years life became worthless under such conditions. Under the leadership and inspiration of Mart[in] Gary The adopted provisions, which came into force after the new constitution was ratified by the convention in December , set a maze of obstacles before prospective voters. Voters had to be a resident of the state two years, the county one year, and the precinct for four months.

Many African Americans were itinerant laborers, and this provision disproportionately affected them. A poll tax had to be paid six months in advance of the election, in May when laborers had the least cash.

This allowed white registrars ample discretion to disenfranchise African Americans. Illiterate whites were shielded by the "understanding" clause, that allowed, until , permanent registration to citizens who could "understand" the constitution when read to them.

This also allowed officials great leeway to discriminate. Even if an African American maneuvered past all of these blocks, he still faced the manager of the polling place, who could demand proof he had paid all taxes owed—something difficult to show conclusively.

Conviction of one of a long list of crimes that whites believed prevalent among African Americans was made the cause of permanent disenfranchisement, including bigamy, adultery, burglary, and arson.

Convicted murderers not in prison had their franchise undisturbed. By early , many in the Democratic Party were bitterly opposed to President Cleveland and his policies. The United States was by then in the third year of a deep recession, the Panic of Cleveland was a firm supporter of the gold standard, and soon after the recession began forced through repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act , which he believed had helped cause it. Sherman 's act, although not restoring bimetallism, had required the government to purchase and coin large quantities of silver bullion, and its repeal outraged supporters of free silver.

From the time of his swearing-in in December when Congress began its annual session , Tillman was seen as the voice of the dissatisfied in the nation; the New York Press stated Tillman would voice the concerns of "the masses of the people of South Carolina far more faithfully than did the Bourbon politician Butler".

Tillman believed that the nation was on the verge of major political change, and that he could be elected president in , uniting the silver supporters of the South and West.

He was willing to consider a third party bid if Cleveland kept control of the Democratic Party, but felt the Populists, by allowing African Americans to seek office, had destroyed their credibility among southern whites. Tillman was his state's favorite son candidate, and its representative on the Committee on Resolutions often called "the Platform Committee".

The platform had the support of the pro-silver majority of the committee, but the gold minority, led by New York Senator David B. Hill , opposed its support of free silver, and wanted to take the disagreement to the convention floor.

With one hour and fifteen minutes allocated to each side, Tillman and Bryan were selected as the speakers in favor of the draft platform. Bryan asked Tillman if he wanted to open or close the debate; the senator wanted to close, but sought fifty minutes to do so.

The Nebraskan replied that Hill would oppose such a long closing address, and Tillman agreed to open the debate, with Bryan to close it. When the platform debate began in the Chicago Coliseum on the morning of July 9, , Tillman was the opening speaker. Although met with applause and shouts of his name, [] he "spoke in the same manner that had won him success in South Carolina, cursing, haranguing his enemies, and raising the specter of sectionalism.

He, however, thoroughly alienated the national audience". This upset delegates, who wished to view silver as a patriotic, national issue, and some voiced their dissent, disagreeing with Tillman.

The senator alternately offended, confused, and bored the delegates, who shouted for Tillman to stop even though less than half of his time had expired. Beset by shouting delegates and one of the convention bands, which unexpectedly appeared and began to play, Tillman nevertheless pressed on, "the audience might just as well understand that I am going to have my say if I stand here until sundown.

His Cross of Gold speech won him the presidential nomination. I am a college student and I am in great need for financial aid. I am in the Dental Assisting program for eight months, and the tuitions is far more expensive than what I can pay.

I really want to finish this school and begin a new career. The worst way to begin my working career is with a huge debt, so I would greatly appreciate help! I am from Romania, and I am so thankful that I can be in the United States, and have all these wonderful opportunities.

Thank you so much! I am a wife, I am look to get a new start in my life i am 34 and it is time to go back to college, I work fulltime just to make some money but it is not enough to go back at this time a am look around for a grant for my frist term. I am looking for financial help for my continuation for B.

Classes begian for me this fall Please let me know if there is any assistance out there for me. Thank You Marva Howard I am a soon to be single mom of 3 children. I have been married for almost 20 years and will soon be on my own. I would love to be able to go back to school to become a massage therapist to incorporate the two fields. I feel by doing both of these I would be able to solely support my family and feel good about what I am doing for them and others.

I would love to have guidance from those already experience to help me get on the path I need to take to make this a reality. Thank you so very much for your time. I am 18 years old and I am due to have my baby on February 20th I tried various loans from banks but because of my bad credit history they could not give me loan.

Hello my name is Stephanie Merricks. I am currently enrolled in college to do my BSN nursing. I am in great financial need. I am currently unemployed and I need money to pay for the rest of my tuition before classes start. So please if anyone out there can help me or give me advice on what I should do it would be greatly appreciated.

Thanks for your time and my number is to contact me thanks. Hello I am Jenny. I am a current senior in high school. I know I cannot pay for college. I am saving as much as possible to help out. My dad works at NOAA and is considered a government worker. My mom has stayed at home and is raising 3 kids and supporting 2 other of her children that are over My dad, alone, cannot pay for 5 people to get through college.

He has debts of his own. I would like very much to have some support in finding a way to help pay for school. I am a wife and mother of 2. My husband is a stay at home dad. I am going back to college this fall and I really do not want to take out any loans. Any help or guidence in this matter would be very appreciated. Hi, my name is Bethany Castle.

I was in foster care in both Virginia and Tennessee. I was then adopted in Tennessee in I need grants and alot of them. I am the oldest and have moved out. I am currently a graduate student working hard to finish my degree. I already owe money for my undergraduate degree and some for my graduate degree.

If there are any grants I could apply for I would be more than thrilled! I am 47 years old and have alot of experience in fundraising and resource development. Unfortunately, I do not have the degree to back up the 20 plus years experience and really want to go back to school.

My children are grown and I am looking for a better quality of life for myself. My income is minimal and I care for my mother.

Can you lead me in the right direction? I am almost finished school, and was told the first day of classes I have no more financial aid. I dont know what to do. I am being turned down over and over. I am an education major. I am a mother of 6. My husband and I are both students. We have very little income. Any information that I could use would be very helpful. I am a 59 yr old senior single mom who has a desire to return to school. I am disabled ,yet not unable to learn!

Often our kids get the signal that life is over without both mom and dad in the home. I want them to see that even with a disability, being single , over average college entry age and black, they still have a chance to succeed. I have been ministering to incarerated women for over 15 yrs. Please provide any information you have to assist me in obtaining grant money for college. Thanks ahead of time for being a positive force for change!

I am a mother of 5 children. I am 2 quarters away from attaining my bachelor degree in business management and have just recently found that I have used all of the federal aid that I am allowed. Please help me someone, I want to show my children how important a higher education is by completing mine. I am currently enrolled in school.

I need help ASAP because there is a chance that I might be dropped from school because I wont be able to pay for classes anymore because i cant afford them. So help me out please. I have just completed my Associates Degree in Healthcare Administration and will be continuing on with my Bachelors.

I am in need of additional funds to continue my education. I do not seem to fall into many categories for assistance. Can anyone help me in the area of acquiring additional financial assistance? I am in the army reserves. I am currently unemployed and have been homeless since I was I suffer from PTSD and major depression so it has been hard for me to have a stable job.

I love art and computers as well as phlebotomy. Is there any kind of financial assistance that I may be able to apply for. Ive wanted to go to school so desperately. I would be very grateful for the opportunity to further my education. I am a single, 34 year old woman who is looking to go back to school for a Nursing Degree. I already have a BS in Child and Family Development, but I will have to start over from square one because all of the credits from my previous college courses are too old to transfer.

I am also still paying off my student loans from that degree so I am definitely not looking for another loan. If anyone has any advice or suggestions I would greatly appreciate it! I am a 25 year old hispanic wife and mother of two who recently got laid off. I have always wanted to go to college but with my kids and no income it seems impossible. Hi i am a mom my youngest just went to school and now that its time for me to find a job which i havnt atepmted to do in 8 years i realize i have zero skills imagine going to an interview or making a resume when i havnt worked in 8 years!

I want to take this time and go to school i have no income and my husband makes to much money for me to recieve financial aide and cant afford college. Please any help would be great! Email me at ninalatti live. I am a mother of 3 year old daughter. I am a greencard holder soon to apply for US citizenship. I believed I need to meet the Accounting standard here in USA inorder for me to qualify to any certain jobs.

Please help me to find a grant to pursue my career in Accounting. Please email me at dyona27 yahoo. I really appreaciate your help thanks alot. It would really mean the world to me. I want to become a RN. If given the right opportunity and chance, success is infinite a path, a doorway for all of my dreams. Thank You cbell yahoo. I just want to finish my degree. I am currently taken care of a sick mother with stage 4 cancer. She also has three types of Cancer.

Hi, I am a full time student and only works part time. My major is biology and would love to go to medical school to become a doctor. Any thing can help. Email me at rznuevo yahoo.

I am a single female struggling very hard to survive while attended college. I have already completed my associates degree in Criminal Justice and I recently just started my Bachelors program specializing in forensic science. I take 9 credits every 5 weeks and cannot find work to provide the needed funding for school supplies or cost of living. What do I do, how can I survive while I attend college? School is being covered by pell grant and student loans.

I have been relying on loans and the Pel Grant but I would like to find some scholarships and grants to help supplement my educational expenses.

Does anyone have any ideas or good websites that I can go to? I can never tell what sites are good and what sites are scams. Any help would be appreciated. Hi I am a single Mom with a daughter in college full time. I am not earning enough money since the construction industry tilted in the economy. I was an interior designer. I would love to go to school to learn the Esthetician course.

The only school in my town is private and it does not have financial aid. So if anyone knows info on how to get money for school for this course i appreciate your time.

Hello, I would like to know what direction you would suggest I go to find assistance for getting my doctorate in Medicine.

Let me explain my situation and myself a bit. I am 47 years old and have managed to work and save over the last many years, until I achieved a bachelors in Nursing and masters degree in Nursing from IU. I asked for no help-I did it myself. Unfortunately this took many years and I am now I have been a Nurse Practitioner in the field of Nephrology for about 5 years now and love what I do; I am wanting in the worst of ways to go on to pursue a doctorate.

Medical school at my age is quite dangerous when looking at the kind of expenses ahead of me. It is important to know I will succeed, and I truly believe I will.

I have the verbal support from doctors I presently work with to pursue my doctorate. I also have the grades I need to get in — an undergraduate GPA of 3. I have done well in my field. Unfortunately at 47 I am fearful of taking on large loans as medical school incurs. I have saved everything I could for the past five years since getting my NP license to help me get through my doctorate, but I do not think I have enough yet.

I have put myself through everyting else living on my savings not asking for help — but now I must ask for any assistance that I can.

I would not ask for help even now except for the factors I mention above my age with taking on such large loans. If you could direct me to the the most likely programs that I could apply to, I am going to ask for their assistance.

I know I am wanting to do studies in a field that is much needed primary care MD - and so will help meet a growing need in our society. I believe also that I have proven I will be a success and that I will be responsible with any help that I receive. If I am given help to get through my doctorate I will return the favor and give significant money to help others as well.

Hi My name is Rhonda I have been attending college since and have done very well. This is due but May , I have no idea were I can get this money from I agreeded to pay them Education is very importatn to me please help you can reach me Why are there only grants for African American and Hispanic women?

Is there any for Asian women? We are a minority group too. I am in my freshman year of college and I am of Native American decent, studying in the field of Speech and Hearing with a minor in arts. My mother is a single mother of three, two of which are in college.

I am in the Speech and Hearing program, with an interest in teaching arts to individuals who are speech and hearing challenged. It is my wish to teach arts to the speech and hearing impaired in addition to working in the health field of Speech and Hearing. Keeping up with paying the monthly bills is a burden on her let alone trying to send two children to college.

I truly need to find grants and scholarships to continue my college education in order to start my dream of helping others reach their dreams of learning to deal with Speech and Hearing disabilities. I am a mom of two and I want to go back to college! I still owe my school from my first semester.

Any information with be helpful thank you! I am a mom of two, I cannot afford the cost of a GED, but thats the only one I can enroll in college, but I cant afford college either. I have no income and I really need the schooling to better the life of my children.

Any Information on If I would be eligable for help with both or not? To whom it may concern, i am a 19 year old female finishing high school going off to college. I will be a first time high school graduate and college attendant. I am looking forward to getting my degree in Bachelors of Science as an RN. My parents dont have money to give for me to college and arent even planning for it, so im doing this on my own. I need any type of information or help i can get.

Please contact me sirama. Hi, I really would love to graduate from college to improve life for myself and my 6 kids. Please let me know what kind of help is out there. I would appreciate it. I have about 69 credits already. I need about 40 more credits to get my BA.

I really need help to better my education and make something of myself. I will be the first one of this generation to graduate and go to college.

I want the oppritunity to go to college and succeed please co nract me at thank you. Hello my name is Marketta Straughter. I am 17 years old and is currently a senior at Southwestern High School. My plans for my future is to attend college to earn a masters degree in psychology. I am a a student with a GPA of 3. My only issue is my mom will not be able to afford me going to college simply because of financial problems.

I really would love to be able to better my education to the maximum of my ability. Its hard when the economy is constantly downgrading itself. It make it difficult to get or even maintain a job you desperatly need. So with that being said thank you for your time and please take it into consideration to respond.

I can be reached at Marketta. I am currently in college, through an online university. I am a mother and not married at that. I am looking to find grants that will help me pay for my school since the costs are very high! If anyone has any information please contact me at texaswaveagency yahoo. I have had some financial hardships and lost my job. I am in search of any kind of grants that will allow me to finish school so I can get a job.

I will need them quickly, if possible. I can be reached at tammypawlak gmail. Thank you very much. I am a mother I work full time a correctional department as a jailer. I have been there almost 2 years. I am a single mother. My daughter is two years old an I am looking to enroll in online classes through the community college. For me to do so I need a grant to help me out. If anyone has info on what I can do please let me know.

It will be greatly appreciated. My email address is Queenkrys05 yahoo. Hi, I am a 23 year old mother of 2 and I was laid off of work a little over a year ago and I have had no luck looking for work so I have decided to go back to school and better my education!

If anyone knows of any grants that may help me please contact me at riveraf hotmail. Thank you in advance! Hello to all, I am To begin my first year in a PhD program for economics. Being a woman, and a minority in that field, I am hoping that there are some scholarships or funding out there for women such as myself.

If anyone knows of any, please email me at kellymurph msn. It is my greatest ambition to complete my PhD in economics, but being a student, with no support from family, and no financial aid from my school, financing my higher education is posing a real problem for me at this time.

I am a mother to two children and my husband is disabled and I would reallly like to go to nursing school. I have been working as a CNA. Hello, I am 17 and just graduated high school. I graduated with high honors. I will be attending college in the fall of this year. I am aiming toward a Masters of Science majoring in Athletic Training.

I have held a summer job for the past three seasons and have been putting as much as I can into savings. Once I start going to school again I am also going to find myself a part time job to help me with the cost of living and everything else I will need. I have looked for scholarship and grant oppurtunities but so far have not been able to come up with much.

I will continue looking though. If you have any information to help me out I would be so greatful. Hi…I am 18 years old and just graduated from high school on June 8, I work part time and I am planning on working two jobs this summer. I have received two small scholarships but I still need more help. My parents have a lot of medical expense. Please send me any information that may help me out. Hi, I am 34 year old married mother of two young children. I left school at a young age and received my GED and then started working.

I am now a Senior Sales Manager at a full service hotel. I have gone much further in my career then I would have ever thought 17 years ago and I feel if I have made it this far I certainly could go much further. I would like to go to college to learn more and possibly even switch careers. I work full time and both of my kids are in daycare.

Is there any information that you could send that could help me on this new path? Any help is really appreciated! I am 25 years old living in California with my father and I need help. I do not know where to turn, but I made the Deans list and from my recent grades will soon make the Presidents list.

I need financial help to make it through the next three years of schooling. I am a good hard working student. Please anyone send me any help you can. Hi, My name is Sheniqua Adams. I am an 18 year old single parent who is currently attending Louisiana State University. I started working the 1st of June in order to help support myself and my 2 year old daughter. My car recently broke so now that is another burden that I have to worry about. I was wondering if anyone knows of any grants that i could receive in the next couple of weeks or months?

I need major help ASAP. So if anyone knows any information please please email me at sa14armysis gmail. Hello, My name is Demetria Roberson. I am a 33 year old single mother of three children.

I have enrolled and been acceted int a nusring program. I am looking for some help finacially to finishing paying for my tuition. I need help to make it through this year of school. Please contact me by e-mail onetothree05 yahoo. I have taught in Title 1 schools all ten years and would like to be able to stand up for those kids especially those who are homeless.

Please help me out!! I have been going to college but I have run out of student loan and I would like to finish. I need grant to be able to continue, I am working on my Bachelor of Science in Health Services Administration with the goal of becoming a medical biller.

I have over 60, in school loan and i would like to pay them off and finish by paying off the rest. Can anyone help me, I am on disability trying to get off and help support me and my husband.

We are also trying to foster but I would like to finish school at the same time. Thank you so much for any help you can give me. I am a mother and i have a bachelor degree in health science. I want to return to school to do nursing but unfortunately i do not have the money to pay for the school. I know I have a year but its going to end fast. I need all the help I can get. So if someone can point me in some kind of direction it would be much appreciated!

I already have my tests complete from the state board of education and everything. If someone knows anything that I can do to come up with this money in a legal way scholarship programs, grants, etc. I have applied non-stop today trying to come up with something. I am in a senior in high school, I want to start college in fall of , after I graduate, but college is so expensive.

Money is really tight my mother is a single parent. If you could help it would be greatly appreciated. I am a licensed journeyman electrician. I have worked in the electrical construction field for the past 16 years. I have a three year old son, and I am married. I am the bread winner for my family, but would like to become an electrical engineer to advance my career, and my family.

Is there any help out there for a woman like me? I am 24, divorced, and trying to afford school to become a teacher. I am having difficulty finding grants and scholarships and came across this site. Any and all help is greatly appreciated. The program lasts 4. I also lost my job 9 months ago and cant afford to take out any student loans. I am trying to complete my BA in information technology and all of my financial aid has been used up. I have also been turned down by SallieMae for some reason.

Any help that I can get wold be greatly appreciated. I am 42 and I have a bad back from working as a CNA for 21 years. I have wanted to go to school for Cosmetology ever since I can remember but I was a single mom of 3 and not much child support coming in at all. I had to leave the abusive relationship I was in so I struggled and worked hard to raise my kids. Now that the youngest one is 16 I have been trying to figure out a way for me to go to school.

Thank you and God Bless! My goal is to obtain a doctrine degree in theology. Directional assistance; where I can apply is appreciated also. Thank you in advance.

It is getting so very difficult for her to stay in school and supply the needs of a happy healthy home for her and her children. I cannot help her like I would because of an auto accident in my own life. I would give her anything to support through this amazing commitment she has made.

I am so proud of her, but the only thing I can do to help her is tokeep looking for scholarships, grants, a benefactor, someone or something who could help her to achieve her goals for her and her family. You never know when your work will arrive, what day, what time of night.

But she hangs in there. Please, if there is anyone or anything I can do to help her to remain in school fulltime and get through her graduate degree, let me know. With all my thanks and hopes and wishes…. I can no longer take anymore student loans, and yet I can not afford school.

I was denied financial aid because I make a little more than the required amount in order to receive aid. However, the government does not take into consideration bills, and everyday expenses. I can not afford to pay my loans back at this time, nor can I afford tuition. I am having a hard time grasping the fact that these grants are mostly in favor of minorities and non US citizens.

Are there any grant or scholarship programs that are out there that can help a non minority American in the ways that minorities and non US citizens receive help? Your help would be Greatly appreciated. Hello im a mother of two and have found it really hard to pay for school and am currently enrolled in college and I am finding any way I can get a grant to pay for school.

Any kind of assistance would be highly appreciated. My name is Kristen Cooper a hard working nursing student. I am a single working mom and this is my second year of school.

Applying to the RN program in January if I can afford to continue after this semester. I am having a hard time finding how to apply for a grant. All the websites I keep getting forwarded to ask for all your information to connect you to a school. I already have a school I am enrolled in, I just need help paying for it. Any ideas or information would be greatly appreciated. I am a 26 year old white female and I work full-time. I have about 28k in student loans already and have plenty of other bills that I have to pay every month.

Are there any grant or scholarship programs I can apply for as a part-time student? I am a 56 year old soon to be divorced female. I have 1 year left to complete my BS in Business Management and left college 8 years ago after a sudden death in my family.

My GPA was a 3. I can barely make ends meet and am unemployed. I desperately need to finish my schooling so I can find a job that will allow me to be self-supporting. I have no income, own nothing and have poor credit as a result of my divorce. Any suggestions or support is greatly appreciated. Hello, I am currently pursuing a degree in education. I am a Hispanic and Irish twenty-nine year old woman.

It would be a tremendous help to find grants that would aid me in finishing my degree and paying back some student loans. If you have any information please send it to my email. Thank you for your time and help. I am a 25 year old female living in Norman, OK. I have about two and a half years of college experience, but was unable to finish school due to financial inabilities.

Any advice or opportunities would be greatly appreciated! I do have some technical training in the jewelry field also the Fine Art at the college level. We have an 18 yr. He has incurred a mid. I also have a sweat equity job no pay and caretake the property we are living on which is next to a church, for reduced rent.

The casita we are in was meant for 2 people. My husband has the one bedroom, there is a small den my daughter uses that as a small bed room. I sleep in the living room, no door no privacy.

The front door is about 8 ft. But I am motivated to do this and re-train considering I am looking at widowhood soon, sadly. But at least I know in advance. I want to start working on Jewelry CAD drafting classes sooner than later. Thanks in advance for your help. I am a 61 year old woman who, has studied hard after returning to school after a number of years. Lost my source of income due to buget cuts in , and having been searching for employment since that time.

I decieded to return to school, and am at the end of my studies for a BS degree in Substance Abuse Counseling, the last class which is my pracitum is the only thing I have left to complete, which I have no funds to do it.

My parents make a decent amount but have other children and to many bills. I have a strong desire to be able to live alone and one day be able to get married and have a child but i will never be able to afford it so I would love to find some help to go to dental hygeinist school at a community college here where I live.

Interest rates are crazy here and I would dp anything to find a way to go to school! Send some imformation on going to school for physical therapy and i have no where to live. I need some help. I am really looking forward to furthering my education, but due to the high costs of college, its harder to achieve.

I come from a low income household. My father has a brain injury and was the bread winner of our house. I would love to prove to myself that I can accomplish anything. This grant is a great way to help out all women. Thank you for reading, I look forward to hearing from you. I am a single woman of 24 who works a full time job and goies to school part time paying for it all by working over time. However I can no longer be permitted to work overtime and need help paying for school.

I do not have parents to help me for I was pulled out of my home by the state at age I have been on my own paying my own bills and never late let me mind you since I was I am determined to et my degree to make something of myself after growing up being told I would never amount to anything. Hello, im a 23 year old mother of a 3 year old, looking to do an online college program. I have no income of my own, my daughters father pays all the bills, and after that there is nothing left.

I would love more than anything to go into the criminal justice field. I have no idea where to start on getting any grants, financial aid, etc. Any advice, grant direction, or financial aid direction would be greatly appreciated. Thank you so much for your time. I am a 50 year old woman feeling very stuck. I am in an verbally and emotionally abusive marriage that I need to get out of but need a job that pays enough for me to make it on my own. I have worked part time as a sales rep. My husband lost his job of 21 years 3 months ago so things are spiralling downhill fast.

Before we lose everything I would love to go to Rocky Mountain Laser Tech College to become a certified technician and then on to get my aesthetician license. I need to become financially independent so I can get out from under all this stress and despair. Life seems hopeless right now.

I am a 22 year old single woman in college. Does anyone know of any grants or living assistance that I might qualify for? If so please let me know! Thank you so much Sadie. My name is Cristie, I am a single mother of seven children, son 20yrs. I am attending college for my G.

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